Dr. Saoji Orthopaedic Clinic And Medilab Pathology Laboratory
Sky Orthopaedics,1st Floor, Nikalas Tower, Central Bazar Road,Nagpur
4.3 / 5
Home sample collection available
MON-SAT 8:00 AM to 8:00 PM
Know About Insulin
Insulin is a hormone that is produced and stored in the beta cells of the pancreas. It is vital for the transportation and storage of glucose, the body's main source of energy. Insulin helps transport glucose from the blood to within cells, helps regulate blood glucose levels, and has a role in lipid metabolism. This test measures the amount of insulin in the blood.
Insulin and glucose blood levels must be in balance. After a meal, carbohydrates usually are broken down into glucose and other simple sugars. This causes the blood glucose level to rise and stimulates the pancreas to release insulin into the blood. As glucose moves into cells, the level in the blood decreases and release of insulin by the pancreas decreases.
If an individual is not able to produce enough insulin, or if the body's cells are resistant to its effects (insulin resistance), glucose cannot reach most of the body's cells and the cells starve, while blood glucose rises to an unhealthy level. This can cause disturbances in normal metabolic processes that result in various disorders and complications, including kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, and vision and neurological problems.
Diabetes, a disorder associated with high glucose levels and decreased insulin effects, can be a life-threatening condition. People with type 1 diabetes produce very little insulin and so eventually require insulin supplementation therapy. Type 2 diabetes is generally related to insulin resistance, which increases with time.
With insulin resistance, the body is unable to respond to the effects of insulin. The body compensates by producing additional amounts of the hormone. This results in a high level of insulin in the blood (hyperinsulinemia) and over-stimulation of some tissues that have remained insulin-sensitive. Over time, this process causes an imbalance in the relationship between glucose and insulin and, without treatment, may eventually cause health complications affecting various parts of the body.
In addition to type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance may be seen in those with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), prediabetes or heart disease, metabolic syndrome, and with disorders related to the pituitary or adrenal glands.
Other than in insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia is most often seen in people with tumor of the islet cells in the pancreas (insulinomas) or with an excess amount of administered (exogenous) insulin. Hyperinsulinemia causes low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), which can lead to sweating, palpitations, hunger, confusion, blurred vision, dizziness, fainting, and seizures. Since the brain is dependent on blood glucose as an energy source, severe glucose deprivation due to hyperinsulinemia can lead fairly quickly to insulin shock and death.
Fasting Insulin; Insulin serum.
To help evaluate insulin production by the beta cells in the pancreas; to help diagnose the presence of an insulin-producing tumor in the islet cells of the pancreas (insulinoma); to help determine the cause of low blood glucose (hypoglycemia); to help identify insulin resistance, or to help determine when a type 2 diabetic might need to start taking insulin to supplement oral medications.When you have low blood glucose levels with symptoms such as sweating, palpitations, dizziness, fainting; when you have diabetes and your health practitioner wants to monitor your insulin production; sometimes when it is suspected that you have insulin resistance.
Insulin levels are most frequently ordered following a low glucose and/or when someone has acute or chronic symptoms of low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) caused by, for example, an insulinoma. Symptoms of hypoglycemia may include:
In serious cases, seizures and loss of consciousness
These symptoms may indicate low blood glucose but may also be seen with other conditions.
An insulin test may also be done when an individual has or is suspected of having insulin resistance. This may include people with type 2 diabetes, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), prediabetes or heart disease, or metabolic syndrome.
A health practitioner also may order insulin and C-peptide tests after an insulinoma has been successfully removed to verify the effectiveness of treatment and then order the tests periodically to monitor for recurrence.
Periodic testing may also be used to monitor the success of an islet cell transplant by measuring the insulin-producing capacity of the transplant.