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Widal test is done to diagnose the enteric fever (Typhoid fever). Enteric fever is a life-threatening illness caused by infection with the bacterium Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. typhi), usually transmitted through food and drinks contaminated with fecal matter. It is associated with symptoms that include high fever, fatigue, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea or constipation, weight loss, and a rash known as "rose spots." Early diagnosis and treatment are important because serious complications, including severe intestinal bleeding or perforation, can develop within a few weeks.Widal test is developed in 1896 and named after Georges Ferdinand Widal, who introduced it, the method relies on a reaction in a test tube or on a slide between antibodies present in the infected person's blood sample and specific antigens of S. typhi, which produces clumping (agglutination) that is visible to the naked eye. While the method is easy to perform, concerns remain about the reliability of the Widal test and studies of the assay's sensitivity and other measures of reliability have been disappointing. Besides cross-reactivity with other Salmonella species, the test cannot distinguish between a current infection and a previous infection or vaccination against typhoid.
Typhoid test; Salmonella Antibodies Blood Test; Typhoid Fever Antibodies Blood Test.
Typhoid; Enteric Fever
The Widal test is a blood test, widely used for serological diagnosis of enteric fever (typhoid / paratyphoid fever). It measures the titre (level) of antibodies (in blood of patients) against salmonella antigens:
Following are the clinical indications for performing the Widal Blood Test: