Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced primarily by cells in the prostate, a small gland that encircles the urethra in males and produces a fluid that makes up part of semen. Most of the PSA that the prostate produces is released into this fluid, but small amounts of it are also released into the bloodstream. This test measures the amount of PSA in the blood.
The PSA test is used as a tumor marker to screen for and to monitor prostate cancer. It is a good tool but not a perfect one, and most experts agree that screening should be done on asymptomatic men only after thorough discussions with their healthcare providers on the benefits and risks and after informed decisions are made to undergo screening. Elevated levels of PSA are associated with prostate cancer, but they may also be seen with prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). PSA levels tend to increase in all men as they age, and men of African American heritage may have levels that are higher than other men, even at earlier ages.
PSA is not diagnostic of cancer. The gold standard for identifying prostate cancer is the prostate biopsy, collecting small samples of prostate tissue and identifying abnormal cells under the microscope. (Read the article on Anatomic Pathology for more information on biopsies.) The total PSA test and digital rectal exam (DRE) are used together to help determine the need for a prostate biopsy.
PSA exists in two main forms in the blood: complexed (cPSA, bound to other proteins) and free (not bound). The most frequently used PSA test is the total PSA, which measures the sum of complexed and the free PSA in the blood.
The free PSA test is sometimes used to help to determine whether a biopsy should be done when the total PSA is only slightly elevated. PSA is an enzyme (protein that helps different chemical reactions to occur) and when it is released into the blood, some circulating proteins inactivate PSA by binding to it. Benign prostate cells in BPH tend to release PSA that is not active (and, therefore, less likely to be bound by circulating proteins) and cancerous prostate cells tend to release PSA that is already protein-bound.
Therefore, men with BPH tend to have higher levels of free PSA and men with prostate cancer tend to have lower amounts of free PSA. A relatively low level of free PSA increases the chances that a cancer is present, even if the total PSA is not significantly elevated.
Total PSA; Free PSA; Prostate Specific Antigen.
Prostate Cancer; Prostate Disease; Benign Prostate Hyperplasia.
PSA test is done to screen men for prostate cancer, to help determine the necessity for a biopsy of the prostate, to monitor the effectiveness of treatment for prostate cancer, and/or to detect recurrence of prostate cancer. When a man has symptoms suggestive of prostate cancer such as difficult, painful, and/or frequent urination; may also be ordered during and at regular intervals after prostate cancer treatment; in asymptomatic men, after a discussion with your healthcare provider about the benefits and harms of screening and you make an informed decision to undergo screening.
For men who wish to be screened for prostate cancer, the American Cancer Society recommends that healthy men of average risk consider waiting to get tested until age 50, while the American Urological Association recommends screening for men between the ages of 55 and 69 with no routine screening after age 70.
For those at high risk, such as American men of African descent and men with a family history of the disease, the recommendation is to consider beginning testing at age 40 or 45.
The total PSA test and digital rectal exam (DRE) may also be ordered when a man has symptoms that could be due to prostate cancer, such as difficult, painful, and/or frequent urination, back pain, and/or pelvic pain.
If a total PSA level is elevated, a healthcare provider may order a repeat test a few weeks later to determine whether the PSA concentrations have returned to normal.
A free PSA is primarily ordered when a man has a moderately elevated total PSA. The results give the healthcare provider additional information about whether the person is at an increased risk of having prostate cancer and help with the decision of whether to biopsy the prostate.
The total PSA may be ordered at regular intervals during treatment of men who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer and when a man with cancer is participating in ""watchful waiting"" and not currently treating his prostate cancer.
We at iHealthMantra enable patients to book their diagnostics tests from best Diagnostics Labs in India such as Thyrocare, Dr Lal Pathlabs, Metropolis, Suburban Diagnostics, Medall Clumax and many others top quality diagnostic labs. Diagnostics tests booked through us are at low price and patients can avail free home sample collection.
We also provide preventive health checkups, Regular Health check-up, Health checkup packages, Thyroid Profile, PET Scan, MRI Scan, CT Scan, Full body check up, Vitamin D Profile, Lipid Profile, Renal Function Tests and other blood tests. Provided below is a brief description of few of our partner labs.
Thyrocare, with its tag line of Think Thyroid, Think Thyrocare, is India's first fully automated diagnostic laboratory with a focus on providing quality at affordable costs to retail customers, laboratories and hospitals in India and other countries. Thyrocare has strong focus on technology, brand and systems that enables Thyrocare laboratories to give their clients the best of science and technology at an affordable cost. Thyrocare laboratories have NABL and CAP accreditations. Thyrocare supports home sample collection to provide convenience to customers.Thyrocare is a PAN India chain with services across all the major Indian cities such New Delhi, Mumbai, Pune, Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad and Kolkata.
Key tests and health profiles supported by Thyrocare are: T3, T4, TSH also called Thyroid Profile, TSH also called Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, Thyrocare Aarogyam Packages such as Mini Aarogyam, Aarogyam A, Aarogyam B, Aarogyam C, Vitamin Profiles such as Vitamin D Profile and Vitamin D3 test.
Metropolis is India?s one of the biggest and multinational chain of pathology labs and diagnostics centre known for excellent customer satisfaction and preventive healthcare. Metropolis has following accreditations, CAP, NABL and RNTCP. Metropolis Healthcare has been honoured for its best practices and its commitment to excellence in customer satisfaction and innovation. The journey of Metropolis started in 1981, when its Founder and Chairman, Dr. Sushil Shah had a vision to introduce specialized testing facilities to the Indian population. Processing over 30 million tests a year, catering to over 20,000 Laboratories, Hospitals, Nursing Homes and 2,00,000 consultants; and with 34 years of experience in delivering accurate reports, Metropolis has earned the reputation of being India's multinational chain of laboratories with a strong presence in Sri Lanka, UAE, South Africa, Kenya, Mauritius & Ghana. Metropolis supports home sample collection to provide convenience to customers. Metropolis is a PAN India chain with services across all the major Indian cities such New Delhi, Mumbai, Pune, Bangalore, Chennai and Hyderabad.
Common Tests supported by Metropolis are Lipid Profile, Thyroid Profile, Vitamin D Profile, Renal function test, Blood Tests, Vitamin D3, TSH, T3, T4, Diabetes Test, ECG test, thalassemia test, preventive health checkups, Regular Health check-up, Health checkup packages and Full body check up.
About Dr Lal Pathlabs
Dr Lal PathLabs is a leading Diagnostic Centre and Pathology Lab for Blood Test in India. Dr Lal PathLabs has a strong focus on quality with NABL accreditation. Dr Lal PathLabs has a qualified team of Pathologists, Radiologists, Microbiologists, Biochemists and specialists. Dr Lal PathLabs supports home sample collection to provide convenience to customers. Dr Lal PathLabs is a PAN India chain with services across all the major Indian cities such New Delhi, Mumbai, Pune, Bangalore, Chennai, Hyderabad and Kolkata.
Common Tests supported by Dr Lal PathLabs are Lipid Profile, Thyroid Profile, Vitamin D Profile, Renal function test, Blood Tests, Vitamin D3, TSH, T3, T4, Diabetes Test, ECG test, thalassemia test, preventive health checkups, Regular Health check-up, Health checkup packages and Full body check up. Few unique health packages supported by Dr Lal PathLabs are Swasth Plus Basic Health Checkup, Swasth Plus Advanced Health Checkup and Swasth Plus Vitamins Package.
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