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Bone marrow disorder (Aplastic anemia,myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)) : Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

What is Bone marrow disorder?

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can develop into the red blood cells that carry oxygen through your body, the white blood cells that fight infections, and the platelets that help with blood clotting.

With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or how they develop:

In leukemia, a cancer of the blood, the bone marrow makes abnormal white blood cells In aplastic anemia, the bone marrow doesn't make red blood cells In myeloproliferative disorders, the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone marrow and affect the production of blood cells

Bone marrow disorder is also known as Aplastic anemia,myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Myeloproliferative disorders are some common types of Bone marrow disorder. Generally Men,women are the victim of the Bone marrow disorder. Seriousness of this disease is Serious.

Symptoms of Bone marrow disorder are :

  • Kidney damage or kidney failure
  • Drowsiness
  • Dehydration
  • Frequent urination
  • Extreme thirst
  • Bleeding and bruising
  • Bone pain and Back pain
  • abdominal pain
  • Abdominal pain has many potential causes. The most common causes ? such as gas pains, indigestion or a pulled muscle ? usually aren't serious. Other conditions may require more-urgent medical attention.

    While the location and pattern of abdominal pain can provide important clues, its time course is particularly useful when determining its cause.

    Acute abdominal pain develops, and often resolves, over a few hours to a few days. Chronic abdominal pain may be intermittent, or episodic, meaning it may come and go. This type of pain may be present for weeks to months, or even years. Some conditions cause progressive pain, which steadily gets worse over time.

  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue is a constant state of tiredness, even when you?ve gotten your usual amount of sleep. This symptom develops over time and causes a drop in your physical, emotional, and psychological energy levels. You?re also more likely to feel unmotivated to participate in or do activities you normally enjoy.

    Some other signs of fatigue include feeling:

    • physically weaker than usual
    • tired, despite rest
    • as though you have less stamina or endurance than normal
    • mentally tired and moody

    Loss of appetite means you don?t have the same desire to eat as you used to. Signs of decreased appetite include not wanting to eat, unintentional weight loss, and not feeling hungry. The idea of eating food may make you feel nauseous, as if you might vomit after eating. Long-term loss of appetite is also known as anorexia, which can have a medical or psychological cause.

    It may be a warning sign from your body when you feel fatigue and loss of appetite together. Read on to see what conditions may cause these symptoms.

  • Fatigue/weakness
  • Weakness

    Weakness is when strength is decreased and extra effort is needed to move a certain part of the body or the entire body. Weakness is due to loss of muscle strength. Weakness can be a big part of why cancer patients feel fatigue.

    Fatigue

    Fatigue is an extreme feeling of tiredness or lack of energy, often described as being exhausted. Fatigue is something that lasts even when a person seems to be getting enough sleep. It can have many causes, including working too much, having disturbed sleep, stress and worry, not having enough physical activity, and going through an illness and its treatment.

    Causes

    Bone marrow disorder can be caused due to:

    exposure to toxic chemicals in solvents, fuels, engine exhaust, certain cleaning products, or agricultural products exposure to atomic radiation certain viruses, including HIV, hepatitis, some retroviruses, and some herpes viruses suppressed immune system or plasma disorder genetic disorders or family history of bone marrow cancer previous chemotherapy or radiation therapy smoking obesity

    What kind of precaution should be taken in Bone marrow disorder?

    ####Plant protein sources: soy and tofu, beans and lentils, nuts and seeds, protein powders. Fluid ? Supports blood volume and viscosity. Evidence suggests that a plant-based diet may promote health and prevent many chronic diseases. Eat more of a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grains and beans. #####Causes of infection after bone marrow transplant: ######Month 1: bacteria, fungi, herpes simplex virus. ######Month 2: cytomegalovirus (CMV), other viruses, bacteria, and fungi.* ######Month 3: varicella-zoster virus, bacteria, fungi*, or a community-acquired respiratory virus

    How it can be spread?

    By genetic and environmental factors.

    Treatment for the Bone marrow disorder

    ####Treatment The type of treatment for bone marrow cancer depends on many factors, including the extent and type of the cancer and the person?s age and overall health. A cancer care team will tailor treatment to meet the person?s healthcare needs.

    After diagnosing bone marrow cancer, a doctor or oncologist will discuss all of the available treatment options with the individual. They may recommend certain treatments to remove the cancer, prevent its spread, or minimize the symptoms to increase comfort and quality of life.

    Following this discussion, they will present the person with a treatment plan. The plan may need regular adjustments depending on the response of the cancer to treatment and any adverse effects that the person experiences from chemotherapy or radiation.

    When testing no longer identifies any abnormal cells in the blood or bone marrow, doctors will describe a person as being in remission.

    #####Types of treatment include:

    ######Chemotherapy Chemotherapy uses medications to either kill cancer cells or prevent them from replicating. There are many different types of chemotherapy treatment.

    A cancer team will often administer chemotherapy treatment by injection or through an intravenous (IV) drip. However, they will sometimes give the individual oral medications instead.

    ######Radiation therapy Radiation therapy targets affected bone marrow with beams of radiation. This treatment involves administering radiation directly into the cancer cells to prevent them from multiplying and spreading. A cancer specialist, called an oncologist, may use a machine that targets the affected bone marrow with a high powered beam of radiation.

    If the cancer has spread throughout the body, the oncologist may recommend total body irradiation. The cancer care team will immerse an individual in radiation using a specialized machine. Alongside chemotherapy drugs, this irradiation is also often a preparatory step for a bone marrow transplant.

    A person may need to stay in the hospital for several days following total body irradiation.

    ######Stem cell transplant A stem cell transplant may be an option in some cases, although not everyone with bone marrow cancer is a candidate for this type of treatment.

    A person will receive high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy to kill the existing bone marrow before the IV administration of the stem cells.

    Possible complication with Bone marrow disorder

    Graft-versus-host disease (allogeneic transplant only) Stem cell (graft) failure. Organ damage. Infections. Cataracts. Infertility. New cancers. Death.

    References:

    1 https://med.virginia.edu/urology/for-patients-and-visitors/adult-urology/prostate-disease/ 2 https://medlineplus.gov/prostatediseases.html 3 https://www.webmd.com/prostate-cancer/types-of-prostate-disease 4 https://www.webmd.com/men/guide/prostate-problems#1 5 https://www.medicinenet.com/prostate_problem_warning_signs/article.htm 6 https://www.healthinaging.org/a-z-topic/prostate-diseases/basic-facts 7 https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/prostate-problems

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