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diabetes mellitus type 2 (Non-insulin-dependent diabetes) : Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

What is diabetes mellitus type 2?

Definition of Diabetes mellitus type 2:
Type 2 diabetes, the most common type of diabetes, is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes mainly from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose get into your cells to be used for energy. In type 2 diabetes, your body doesn?t make enough insulin or doesn?t use insulin well. Too much glucose then stays in your blood, and not enough reaches your cells.

Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong disease that keeps your body from using insulin the way it should. People with type 2 diabetes are said to have insulin resistance.

People who are middle-aged or older are most likely to get this kind of diabetes, so it used to be called adult-onset diabetes. But type 2 diabetes also affects kids and teens, mainly because of childhood obesity.

It?s the most common type of diabetes. There are about 29 million people in the U.S. with type 2. Another 84 million have prediabetes, meaning their blood sugar (or blood glucose) is high but not high enough to be diabetes yet.

diabetes mellitus type 2 is also known as Non-insulin-dependent diabetes. diabetes mellitus type 2 belongs under the category of Sugar disease. Generally Male, Female are the victim of the diabetes mellitus type 2. Seriousness of this disease is Medium.

Symptoms of diabetes mellitus type 2 are :

  • Extreme thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • hunger
  • Weight loss
  • Sudden, noticeable weight loss can happen after a stressful event, although it can also be a sign of a serious illness.

    It's normal to lose a noticeable amount of weight after the stress of changing jobs, divorce, redundancy or bereavement.

    Weight often returns to normal when you start to feel happier, after you've had time to grieve or get used to the change. Counselling and support may be needed to help you get to this stage.

    Significant weight loss can also be the result of an eating disorder, such as anorexia or bulimia. If you think you have an eating disorder, talk to someone you trust and consider speaking to your GP. There are also several organisations that can provide you with information and advice, such as the eating disorders charity Beat.

    If your weight loss wasn't due to one of the causes mentioned, and you didn't lose weight through dieting or exercising, see your GP, as you may have an illness that needs treating.

  • Fatigue/weakness
  • Weakness

    Weakness is when strength is decreased and extra effort is needed to move a certain part of the body or the entire body. Weakness is due to loss of muscle strength. Weakness can be a big part of why cancer patients feel fatigue.

    Fatigue

    Fatigue is an extreme feeling of tiredness or lack of energy, often described as being exhausted. Fatigue is something that lasts even when a person seems to be getting enough sleep. It can have many causes, including working too much, having disturbed sleep, stress and worry, not having enough physical activity, and going through an illness and its treatment.

  • Vision problems, such as blurred vision, double vision or loss of peripheral vision
  • Double vision is the perception of two images of a single object seen adjacent to each other (horizontally, vertically, or obliquely) or overlapping. Diplopia is the medical term for double vision. Polyplopia is the perception of three or more images of a single object overlapping each other.

    Double vision is called "monocular" when the double image is perceived by an eye that is tested alone. In "binocular" double vision, each eye sees a single image when tested alone, but a double image is present when both eyes are open.

  • Frequent and prolonged infections
  • Dry mouth
  • itchy skin
  • Itchy skin, also known as pruritus, is an irritating and uncontrollable sensation that makes you want to scratch to relieve the feeling. The possible causes for itchiness include internal illnesses and skin conditions.

    Causes

    diabetes mellitus type 2 can be caused due to:

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 can be caused due to following reasons: Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone. Your pancreas produces it and releases it when you eat. Insulin helps transport glucose from your bloodstream to cells throughout your body, where it?s used for energy.

    If you have type 2 diabetes, your body becomes resistant to insulin. Your body is no longer using the hormone efficiently. This forces your pancreas to work harder to make more insulin.

    Over time, this can damage cells in your pancreas. Eventually, your pancreas may not be able to produce any insulin.

    If you don?t produce enough insulin or if your body doesn?t use it efficiently, glucose builds up in your bloodstream. This leaves your body?s cells starved for energy. Doctors don?t know exactly what triggers this series of events.

    It may have to do with cell dysfunction in the pancreas or with cell signaling and regulation. In some people, the liver produces too much glucose. There may be a genetic predisposition to developing type 2 diabetes.

    There?s definitely a genetic predisposition to obesity, which increases the risk of insulin resistance and diabetes. There could also be an environmental trigger.

    Most likely, it?s a combination of factors that increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. Find out more about the causes of diabetes.

    What kind of precaution should be taken in diabetes mellitus type 2?

    You can?t always prevent type 2 diabetes. There?s nothing you can do about your genetics, ethnicity, or age.

    However, a few lifestyle tweaks can help delay or even prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes, whether or not you have diabetes risk factors such as prediabetes.

    Diet

    Your diet should limit sugar and refined carbohydrates and replace them with low glycemic whole grains, carbohydrates, and fiber. Lean meat, poultry, or fish provide protein. You also need heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids from certain kinds of fish, monounsaturated fats, and polyunsaturated fats. Dairy products should be low in fat.

    It?s not only what you eat, but also how much you eat that matters. You should be careful about portion sizes and try to eat meals at about the same time every day.

    Exercise

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with inactivity. Getting 30 minutes yoga for diabetes every day can improve your overall health. Try to add in extra movement throughout the day, too.

    Weight management

    You?re more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you?re overweight. Eating a healthy, balanced diet and getting daily exercise should help you keep your weight under control. If those changes aren?t working, your doctor can make some recommendations for losing weight safely.

    The bottom line

    These changes in diet, exercise, and weight management work together to help keep your blood glucose levels within the ideal range all day long.

    How it can be spread?

    Type 2 diabetes is inherited, which means a group of genes that can lead to type 2 diabetes is passed down from mothers and fathers to their children. A person with a parent, brother, or sister with type 2 diabetes has a greater chance of also developing type 2 diabetes.

    Genes play an important role in determining who gets type 2 diabetes and who doesn't. But they might not be the only influence. Environmental factors, including viruses and allergies, appear to trigger type 2 diabetes in some people who have inherited the genes.

    Treatment for the diabetes mellitus type 2

    Diagnosis of diabetes type 2:

    Type 2 diabetes is usually diagnosed using the:

    • Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. Normal levels are below 5.7 percent, and a result between 5.7 and 6.4 percent is considered prediabetes. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests means you have diabetes.

    If the A1C test isn't available, or if you have certain conditions ? such as an uncommon form of hemoglobin (known as a hemoglobin variant) ? that interfere with A1C test, your doctor may use the following tests to diagnose diabetes:

    • Random blood sugar test. Blood sugar values are expressed in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Regardless of when you last ate, a blood sample showing that your blood sugar level is 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher suggests diabetes, especially if you also have signs and symptoms of diabetes, such as frequent urination and extreme thirst.
    • Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample is taken after an overnight fast. A reading of less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes.

    If your fasting blood sugar is 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes.

    • Oral glucose tolerance test. This test is less commonly used than the others, except during pregnancy. You'll need to fast overnight and then drink a sugary liquid at the doctor's office. Blood sugar levels are tested periodically for the next two hours.

    A blood sugar level less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) is normal. A reading between 140 and 199 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L and 11.0 mmol/L) indicates prediabetes. A reading of 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) or higher after two hours suggests diabetes.

    The American Diabetes Association recommends routine screening for type 2 diabetes beginning at age 45, especially if you're overweight. If the results are normal, repeat the test every three years. If the results are borderline, ask your doctor when to come back for another test.

    Screening is also recommended for people who are under 45 and overweight if there are other heart disease or diabetes risk factors present, such as a sedentary lifestyle, a family history of type 2 diabetes, a personal history of gestational diabetes or blood pressure above 140/90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).

    Treatment of diabetes type 2:

    If you're diagnosed with diabetes, the doctor may do other tests to distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes ? since the two conditions often require different treatments.

    You can effectively manage type 2 diabetes. Your doctor will tell you how often you should check your blood glucose levels. The goal is to stay within a specific range.

    Follow these tips to manage type 2 diabetes:

    • Include foods rich in fiber and healthy carbohydrates in your diet. Eating fruits, vegetables, and whole grains will help keep your blood glucose levels steady.
    • Eat at regular intervals
    • Only eat until you?re full.
    • Control your weight and keep your heart healthy. That means keeping refined carbohydrates, sweets, and animal fats to a minimum.
    • Get about half an hour of aerobic activity daily to help keep your heart healthy. Exercise helps to control blood glucose, too.

    Your doctor will explain how to recognize the early symptoms of blood sugar that?s too high or too low and what to do in each situation. They?ll also help you learn which foods are healthy and which foods aren?t.

    Not everyone with type 2 diabetes needs to use insulin. If you do, it?s because your pancreas isn?t making enough insulin on its own. It?s crucial that you take insulin as directed. There are other prescription medications that may help as well.

    Medications for type 2 diabetes

    In some cases, lifestyle changes are enough to keep type 2 diabetes under control. If not, there are several medications that may help. Some of these medications are:

    • metformin, which can lower your blood glucose levels and improve how your body responds to insulin ? it?s the preferred treatment for most people with type 2 diabetes
    • sulfonylureas, which are oral medications that help your body make more insulin
    • meglitinides, which are fast-acting, short-duration medications that stimulate your pancreas to release more insulin
    • thiazolidinediones, which make your body more sensitive to insulin
    • dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, which are milder medications that help reduce blood glucose levels
    • glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, which slow digestion and improve blood glucose levels
    • sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, which help prevent the kidneys from reabsorbing glucose into the blood and sending it out in your urine

    Each of these medications can cause side effects. It may take some time to find the best medication or combination of medications to treat your diabetes.

    If your blood pressure or cholesterol levels are a problem, you may need medications to address those needs as well.

    If your body can?t make enough insulin, you may need insulin therapy. You may only need a long-acting injection you can take at night, or you may need to take insulin several times per day. Learn about other medications that can help you manage diabetes.

    Possible complication with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Type 2 diabetes can be easy to ignore, especially in the early stages when you're feeling fine. But diabetes affects many major organs, including your heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys. Controlling your blood sugar levels can help prevent these complications.

    Although long-term complications of diabetes develop gradually, they can eventually be disabling or even life-threatening. Some of the potential complications of diabetes include:

    • Heart and blood vessel disease. Diabetes dramatically increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure and narrowing of blood vessels (atherosclerosis).

    • Nerve damage (neuropathy). Excess sugar can cause tingling, numbness, burning or pain that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward. Eventually, you may lose all sense of feeling in the affected limbs.

      Damage to the nerves that control digestion can cause problems with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. For men, erectile dysfunction may be an issue.

    • Kidney damage. Diabetes can sometimes lead to kidney failure or irreversible end-stage kidney disease, which may require dialysis or a kidney transplant.

    • Hearing impairment. Hearing problems are more common in people with diabetes.

    • Skin conditions. Diabetes may leave you more susceptible to skin problems, including bacterial and fungal infections.

    • Sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea is common in people with type 2 diabetes. Obesity may be the main contributing factor to both conditions. Treating sleep apnea may lower your blood pressure and make you feel more rested, but it's not clear whether it helps improve blood sugar control.

    • Alzheimer's disease. Type 2 diabetes seems to increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease, though it's not clear why. The worse your blood sugar control, the greater the risk appears to be.

    • Eye damage. Diabetes increases the risk of serious eye diseases, such as cataracts and glaucoma, and may damage the blood vessels of the retina, potentially leading to blindness.

    • Slow healing. Left untreated, cuts and blisters can become serious infections, which may heal poorly. Severe damage might require toe, foot or leg amputation.

    References:

    1. https://www.webmd.com/diabetes/type-2-diabetes
    2. https://www.healthline.com/health/type-2-diabetes
    3. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-2-diabetes/symptoms-causes/syc-20351193
    4. https://www.diabetes.org/diabetes/type-2
    5. https://www.medicinenet.com/type_2_diabetes/article.htm

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