What is Female Infertility Problems (Pregnancy problem)?
Most couples who have unprotected sex at least twice per week are able to become pregnant within one year. Now a days we can easily check pregnancy test at home using pregnancy kit. If pregnancy does not occur after one year, the man and woman are diagnosed as having an infertility problem. Generally Missed period, Tender, swollen breasts, Nausea, vomiting, Increased urination, Fatigue. Moodiness, Bloating, Constipation and Food aversions are the early symptoms of pregnancy in first to 3rd week or first month.
Infertility can result from problems in the man, the woman or both partners. In some couples, no cause of infertility can be found. In other couples, more than one cause exists.
Normal aging reduces a woman's ability to become pregnant. As a woman grows older, ovulation?the process of forming and releasing an egg?becomes slower and less effective.
Aging begins to reduce fertility as early as age 30. Pregnancy rates are very low after age 44. This is true even when fertility medications are used.
How can we calculate due date of pregnancy?
Unless you've been tracking your ovulation, there's no way to know for sure exactly when you ovulated and conceived. That's why your due date is calculated based on the date of your last period instead.
Most women ovulate about two weeks after the first day of their period, and conceive shortly afterwards. Natural pregnancy due date is approximately 282 days. That?s nine calendar months and seven days, or 40 weeks. You can calculate your due date using pregnancy due date calculatorFemale Infertility Problems (Pregnancy problem) belongs under the category of Female disease. Generally Female are the victim of the Female Infertility Problems (Pregnancy problem). Seriousness of this disease is Serious.
Symptoms of Female Infertility Problems (Pregnancy problem) are :
Most men's testicles are about the same size, though it's common for one to be slightly bigger than the other. It's also common for one testicle to hang lower than the other.
The testicles produce the primary male sex hormone testosterone, as well as sperm. The average size of a man testicle is about 4 x 3 x 2 centimeters (cm) in size and is oval shaped. Most men have two testicles, also known as testes. It?s common for one of a man?s testicles to be a different size than the other testicle. Testicles reside in the scrotum, attached at each end to the spermatic cord.
Testicular swelling, like pain in the testicle, can arise from several different causes, some of which constitute a medical emergency. Testicular swelling may be perceived when there is localized enlargement of a testicle or a more generalized enlargement of the scrotum. It may be one-sided or bilateral and may or may not be accompanied by pain and other symptoms.
Testicles are egg-shaped reproductive organs located in the scrotum. Pain in the testicles can be caused by minor injuries to the area. However, if you?re experiencing pain in the testicle, you need to have your symptoms evaluated.
Women's sexual desires naturally fluctuate over the years. Highs and lows commonly coincide with the beginning or end of a relationship or with major life changes, such as pregnancy, menopause or illness. Some medications used for mood disorders also can cause low sex drive in women.
Intercourse pain, or dyspareunia, can cause problems in a couple's sexual relationship. In addition to the physically painful sex occurs just before, during or after intercourse, there is also the possibility of negative emotional effects. So the problem should be addressed as soon as it arises.
On average, The normal length of a woman?s menstrual cycle is 24 to 38 days. A period usually lasts about 2 to 8 days. So this varies between individuals. When the length of the cycle is more than 35 days, or if the duration varies then it is called irregular menstruation or irregular periods.
Itchy skin, also known as pruritus, is an irritating and uncontrollable sensation that makes you want to scratch to relieve the feeling. The possible causes for itchiness include internal illnesses and skin conditions.
Painful ejaculation, also known as dysorgasmia or orgasmalgia, can range from mild discomfort to severe pain during or after ejaculation. The pain can involve the penis, scrotum, and perineal or perianal area.
Menorrhagia is the medical term for menstrual periods with abnormally heavy or prolonged bleeding. Although heavy menstrual bleeding is a common concern, most women don't experience blood loss severe enough to be defined as menorrhagia.
With menorrhagia, you can't maintain your usual activities when you have your period because you have so much blood loss and cramping. If you dread your period because you have such heavy menstrual bleeding, talk with your doctor. There are many effective treatments for menorrhagia.
Weight gain can result from an increase in body fluid, muscle mass, or fat. An increase in body fluid can come from medications, fluid and salt retention, intravenous fluid infusion, kidney or heart failure. An increase in muscle mass is commonly seen with exercising. An increase in body fat is commonly seen as a result of diet or lack of exercise as the body converts muscle to fat. An excessive weight gain is referred to as obesity. Obesity is a function of environmental (diet, exercise, lifestyle, etc.), hormonal, and inherited (genetic) factors in varying degrees. Weight gain is a normal part of pregnancy.
Female Infertility Problems (Pregnancy problem) can be caused due to:
There are a number of things that may be keeping you from getting pregnant:
Damage to your fallopian tubes. These structures carry eggs from your ovaries, which produce eggs, to the uterus, where the baby develops. They can get damaged when scars form after pelvic infections, endometriosis, and pelvic surgery. That can prevent sperm from reaching an egg in the tube. The egg and sperm meet in the tube. This is where the egg is fertilized and then moves down to the uterus to implant..
Hormonal problems. You may not be getting pregnant because your body isn't going through the usual hormone changes that lead to the release of an egg from the ovary and the thickening of the lining of the uterus. for this you can do hormone testing.
Cervical issues. Some women have a condition that prevents sperm from passing through the cervical canal.
Uterine trouble. You may have polyps and fibroids that interfere with getting pregnant. Uterine polyps occur when too many cells grow in the endometrium, the lining of the uterus. Fibroids grow in the wall of the uterus. Other abnormalities of the uterus can also interfere,
"Unexplained" infertility. For about 20% of couples who have infertility problems, the exact causes are never pinpointed.
Tests for Infertility
Your doctor may order several tests, including a blood test to check hormone levels and an endometrial biopsy to examine the lining of your uterus.
Hysterosalpingography (HSG). This procedure involves ultrasound or X-rays of your reproductive organs. A doctor injects either dye or saline and air into your cervix, which travel up through your fallopian tubes. With this method, your doctor can check to see if the tubes are blocked.
Laparoscopy. Your doctor puts a laparoscope -- a slender tube fitted with a tiny camera -- through a small cut near your belly button. This lets him view the outside of your uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes to check for abnormal growths. The doctor can also see if your fallopian tubes are blocked.
Other causes of infertility:
- ovulation problems
- polycystic ovary syndrome
- problems with the fallopian tubes
- problems with the uterus
What kind of precaution should be taken in Female Infertility Problems (Pregnancy problem)?
You can optimize your chances of getting pregnant in a number of ways.
- Exercise moderately. Do not exercise so heavily that your menstrual periods are infrequent or absent.
- Maintain a healthy weight. A good goal is a body mass index (BMI) of at least 20 and below 27.
- Avoid smoking.
- Limit caffeine. High intake of caffeinated drinks may impair fertility.
- Review your medicines with your doctor. Some medications can affect your ability to conceive or carry a normal pregnancy.
- Consider following a "fertility diet." Women who do the following may have better rates of fertility:
- Eating more beans, nuts and other fertility-boosting plant protein
- Eating more whole grains
- Avoiding sugary sodas
- Having a glass of whole milk and other full-fat dairy food every day (even including an occasional small bowl of ice cream)
Some treatments for cancer can cause infertility. Certain techniques allow a woman planning to undergo chemotherapy or radiation to later have a baby from her own egg. Discuss these with your doctor before beginning cancer treatment.
Treatment for the Female Infertility Problems (Pregnancy problem)
If you've been unable to conceive within a reasonable period of time, seek help from your doctor for evaluation and treatment of infertility.
Fertility tests may include:
- Ovulation testing. An at-home, over-the-counter ovulation prediction kit detects the surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) that occurs before ovulation. A blood test for progesterone ? a hormone produced after ovulation ? can also document that you're ovulating. Other hormone levels, such as prolactin, also may be checked.
- Hysterosalpingography. During hysterosalpingography (his-tur-o-sal-ping-GOG-ruh-fee), X-ray contrast is injected into your uterus and an X-ray is taken to detect abnormalities in the uterine cavity. The test also determines whether the fluid passes out of the uterus and spills out of your fallopian tubes. If abnormalities are found, you'll likely need further evaluation. In a few women, the test itself can improve fertility, possibly by flushing out and opening the fallopian tubes.
- Ovarian reserve testing. This testing helps determine the quality and quantity of eggs available for ovulation. Women at risk of a depleted egg supply ? including women older than 35 ? may have this series of blood and imaging tests.
- Other hormone testing. Other hormone tests check levels of ovulatory hormones as well as thyroid stimulating hormone and pituitary hormones that control reproductive processes.
- Imaging tests. A pelvic ultrasound looks for uterine or fallopian tube disease. Sometimes a sono hysterogram, also called a saline infusion sonogram, is used to see details inside the uterus that can't be seen on a regular ultrasound.
Depending on your situation, rarely your testing may include:
- Other imaging tests. Depending on your symptoms, your doctor may request a hysteroscopy to look for uterine or fallopian tube disease.
- Laparoscopy. This minimally invasive surgery involves making a small incision beneath your navel and inserting a thin viewing device to examine your fallopian tubes, ovaries and uterus. A laparoscopy may identify endometriosis, scarring, blockages or irregularities of the fallopian tubes, and problems with the ovaries and uterus.
- Genetic testing. Genetic testing helps determine whether there's a genetic defect causing infertility.
Other test need to be done for diagnosing the infertility:
- Anti-Müllerian Hormone Test
- Diagnostic Testing for Female Infertility
- Estrogen Levels Test
- Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Levels Test
- Hysterosalpingogram (HSG)
- Karyotype Genetic Test
- Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Levels Test
- Pelvic laparoscopy - slideshow
- Progesterone Test
- Prolactin Levels
Infertility treatment depends on the cause, your age, how long you've been infertile and personal preferences. Because infertility is a complex disorder, treatment involves significant financial, physical, psychological and time commitments.
Although some women need just one or two therapies to restore fertility, it's possible that several different types of treatment may be needed.
Treatments can either attempt to restore fertility through medication or surgery, or help you get pregnant with sophisticated techniques.
Fertility restoration: Stimulating ovulation with fertility drugs
Fertility drugs regulate or stimulate ovulation. Fertility drugs are the main treatment for women who are infertile due to ovulation disorders.
Fertility drugs generally work like the natural hormones ? follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) ? to trigger ovulation. They're also used in women who ovulate to try to stimulate a better egg or an extra egg or eggs. Fertility drugs may include:
- Clomiphene citrate. Clomiphene citrate is taken by mouth and stimulates ovulation by causing the pituitary gland to release more FSH and LH, which stimulate the growth of an ovarian follicle containing an egg.
- Gonadotropins. Instead of stimulating the pituitary gland to release more hormones, these injected treatments stimulate the ovary directly to produce multiple eggs. Gonadotropin medications include human menopausal gonadotropin or hMG (Menopur) and FSH (Gonal-F, Follistim AQ, Bravelle). Another gonadotropin, human chorionic gonadotropin (Ovidrel, Pregnyl), is used to mature the eggs and trigger their release at the time of ovulation. Concerns exist that there's a higher risk of conceiving multiples and having a premature delivery with gonadotropin use.
- Metformin. Metformin is used when insulin resistance is a known or suspected cause of infertility, usually in women with a diagnosis of PCOS. Metformin helps improve insulin resistance, which can improve the likelihood of ovulation.
- Letrozole. Letrozole (Femara) belongs to a class of drugs known as aromatase inhibitors and works in a similar fashion to clomiphene. Letrozole may induce ovulation. However, the effect this medication has on early pregnancy isn't yet known, so it isn't used for ovulation induction as frequently as others.
- Bromocriptine. Bromocriptine (Cycloset), a dopamine agonist, may be used when ovulation problems are caused by excess production of prolactin (hyperprolactinemia) by the pituitary gland.