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Gonorrhoea (the clap) : Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

What is Gonorrhoea?

Gonorrhea is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI). A person can transmit it during any kind of sexual contact. With an early diagnosis, effective treatment is usually available. However, without treatment, gonorrhea can result in long-term complications. Gonorrhea is an infection caused by a sexually transmitted bacterium that infects both males and females. Gonorrhea most often affects the urethra, rectum or throat. In females, gonorrhea can also infect the cervix.

Gonorrhea is most commonly spread during vaginal, oral or anal sex. But babies of infected mothers can be infected during childbirth. In babies, gonorrhea most commonly affects the eyes.

Abstaining from sex, using a condom if you have sex and being in a mutually monogamous relationship are the best ways to prevent sexually transmitted infections.

Gonorrhoea is also known as the clap. Gonorrhoea belongs under the category of Sexual disease. Generally Male, Female are the victim of the Gonorrhoea. Seriousness of this disease is Serious.

Symptoms of Gonorrhoea are :

  • Watery dischargefrom the vagina
  • redness at the opening of the penis
  • swelling at the opening of the penis
  • a pus-like discharge from the penis
  • Pain during sex
  • Intercourse pain, or dyspareunia, can cause problems in a couple's sexual relationship. In addition to the physically painful sex occurs just before, during or after intercourse, there is also the possibility of negative emotional effects. So the problem should be addressed as soon as it arises.

  • Pain or burning urination
  • heavy periods
  • Menorrhagia is the medical term for menstrual periods with abnormally heavy or prolonged bleeding. Although heavy menstrual bleeding is a common concern, most women don't experience blood loss severe enough to be defined as menorrhagia.

    With menorrhagia, you can't maintain your usual activities when you have your period because you have so much blood loss and cramping. If you dread your period because you have such heavy menstrual bleeding, talk with your doctor. There are many effective treatments for menorrhagia.

  • Frequent urination
  • sore throat
  • A sore throat is a painful, dry, or scratchy feeling in the throat.

    Pain in the throat is one of the most common symptoms. It accounts for more than 13 million visits to doctor?s offices each year (1Trusted Source).

    Most sore throats are caused by infections, or by environmental factors like dry air. Although a sore throat can be uncomfortable, it?ll usually go away on its own.

    Sore throats are divided into types, based on the part of the throat they affect:

    • Pharyngitis affects the area right behind the mouth.
    • Tonsillitis is swelling and redness of the tonsils, the soft tissue in the back of the mouth.
    • Laryngitis is swelling and redness of the voice box, or larynx.
  • abdominal pain
  • Abdominal pain has many potential causes. The most common causes ? such as gas pains, indigestion or a pulled muscle ? usually aren't serious. Other conditions may require more-urgent medical attention.

    While the location and pattern of abdominal pain can provide important clues, its time course is particularly useful when determining its cause.

    Acute abdominal pain develops, and often resolves, over a few hours to a few days. Chronic abdominal pain may be intermittent, or episodic, meaning it may come and go. This type of pain may be present for weeks to months, or even years. Some conditions cause progressive pain, which steadily gets worse over time.

  • Medium Fever
  • A fever is a higher-than-normal body temperature. It?s a sign of your body's natural fight against infection.

    • For adults, a fever is when your temperature is higher than 100.4F.
    • For kids, a fever is when their temperature is higher than 100.4F (measured rectally); 99.5F (measured orally); or 99F (measured under the arm).

    The average normal body temperature is 98.6 Fahrenheit (or 37 Celsius). When you or your child?s temperature rises a few degrees above normal, it?s a sign that the body is healthy and fighting infection. In most cases, that?s a good thing.

    But when a fever rises above 102F it should be treated at home and, if necessary, by your healthcare provider if the fever doesn?t go down after a few days.

    Causes

    Gonorrhoea can be caused due to:

    This STD comes from bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It?s spread through sex, but a man doesn?t have to ejaculate in order to pass it on to his partner.

    You can get gonorrhea from any kind of sexual contact, including:

    • Anal intercourse
    • Oral intercourse (both giving and receiving)
    • Vaginal intercourse

    As with other germs, you can get the bacteria that cause gonorrhea just from touching an infected area on another person. If you come into contact with the penis, vagina, mouth, or anus of someone with gonorrhea, you could get it.

    Women who have gonorrhea can pass it to their baby during a vaginal delivery. Babies born by C-section can?t get it from their mother.

    These germs can?t live very long outside the body, so you can?t get gonorrhea by touching objects like toilet seats or clothes.

    What kind of precaution should be taken in Gonorrhoea?

    To reduce your gonorrhea risk:

    • Use a condom if you have sex. Abstaining from sex is the surest way to prevent gonorrhea. But if you choose to have sex, use a condom during any type of sexual contact, including anal sex, oral sex or vaginal sex.

    • Limit your number of sex partners. Being in a monogamous relationship in which neither partner has sex with anyone else can lower your risk.

    • Be sure you and your partner are tested for sexually transmitted infections. Before you have sex, get tested and share your results with each other.

    • Don't have sex with someone who appears to have a sexually transmitted infection. If your partner has signs or symptoms of a sexually transmitted infection, such as burning during urination or a genital rash or sore, don't have sex with that person.

    • Consider regular gonorrhea screening. Annual screening is recommended for sexually active women younger than 25 and for older women at increased risk of infection. This includes women who have a new sex partner, more than one sex partner, a sex partner with other partners, or a sex partner who has a sexually transmitted infection.

      Regular screening is also recommended for men who have sex with men, as well as their partners.

    How it can be spread?

    You can get gonorrhea by having vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has gonorrhea. A pregnant woman with gonorrhea can give the infection to her baby during childbirth.

    The bacteria that cause gonorrhoea are mainly found in discharge from the penis and in vaginal fluid.

    Gonorrhoea is easily passed between people through:

    • unprotected vaginal, oral or anal sex
    • sharing vibrators or other sex toys that have not been washed or covered with a new condom each time they're used

    The bacteria can infect the entrance to the womb (cervix), the tube that passes urine out of the body (urethra), the rectum and, less commonly, the throat or eyes.

    The infection can also be passed from a pregnant woman to her baby. If you're pregnant and may have gonorrhoea, it's important to get tested and treated before your baby is born.

    Without treatment, gonorrhoea can cause permanent blindness in a newborn baby.

    Gonorrhoea is not spread by kissing, hugging, swimming pools, toilet seats or sharing baths, towels, cups, plates or cutlery. The bacteria cannot survive outside the human body for long.

    Treatment for the Gonorrhoea

    Diagnosis:

    To determine whether you have gonorrhea, your doctor will analyze a sample of cells. Samples can be collected by:

    • Urine test. This can help identify bacteria in your urethra.
    • Swab of affected area. A swab of your throat, urethra, vagina or rectum can collect bacteria that can be identified in a lab.

    For women, home test kits are available for gonorrhea. They include vaginal swabs for self-testing that are sent to a specified lab for testing. You can choose to be notified by email or text message when your results are ready. You can view your results online or receive them by calling a toll-free hotline.

    Testing for other sexually transmitted infections

    Your doctor may recommend tests for other sexually transmitted infections. Gonorrhea increases your risk of these infections, particularly chlamydia, which often accompanies gonorrhea.

    Testing for HIV also is recommended for anyone diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection. Depending on your risk factors, tests for additional sexually transmitted infections could be beneficial as well.

    Treatment:

    If the test result is positive for gonorrhea infection, the individual and potentially any sexual partners will need to undergo treatment.

    Treatment can stop the infection from progressing, but it cannot repair any permanent damage that has already occurred. For this reason, it is important to seek treatment as soon as possible.

    Treatment typically involves antibiotics.

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend a single dose of 250 milligrams of intramuscular ceftriaxone (Rocephin) and 1 gram of oral azithromycin (Zithromax). They urge people to take all of the medication that a doctor prescribes and to avoid sharing it with anyone else.

    However, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacteria that cause gonorrhea, have developed resistance to nearly all of the antibiotics that doctors have traditionally used to treat it.

    This resistance is making gonorrhea more and more difficult to treat. If a person does not notice any improvement in their symptoms after several days of treatment, they should return to their healthcare provider. They may need further testing to determine whether the treatment is working.

    A person should also attend any follow-up appointments and avoid having sex until a healthcare provider says that it is safe to do so.

    If gonorrhea occurs during pregnancy, it is essential to let the healthcare team know. It is possible to pass the infection on to a baby during delivery, so the newborn will usually need antibiotics straight after birth.

    Some newborns develop conjunctivitis after they are born. There are various possible causes, one of which is gonorrhea infection. Symptoms usually appear 2?4 days after birth and include red eyes, thick pus in the eyes, and swollen eyelids.

    Anyone who notices these symptoms in a newborn should seek medical care at once as they can also be a sign of a more serious condition, such as meningitis or bacteremia.

    Possible complication with Gonorrhoea

    Untreated gonorrhea can lead to major complications, such as:

    • Infertility in women. Gonorrhea can spread into the uterus and fallopian tubes, causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID can result in scarring of the tubes, greater risk of pregnancy complications and infertility. PID requires immediate treatment.
    • Infertility in men. Gonorrhea can cause a small, coiled tube in the rear portion of the testicles where the sperm ducts are located (epididymis) to become inflamed (epididymitis). Untreated epididymitis can lead to infertility.
    • Infection that spreads to the joints and other areas of your body. The bacterium that causes gonorrhea can spread through the bloodstream and infect other parts of your body, including your joints. Fever, rash, skin sores, joint pain, swelling and stiffness are possible results.
    • Increased risk of HIV/AIDS. Having gonorrhea makes you more susceptible to infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that leads to AIDS. People who have both gonorrhea and HIV are able to pass both diseases more readily to their partners.
    • Complications in babies. Babies who contract gonorrhea from their mothers during birth can develop blindness, sores on the scalp and infections.

    References:

    1 https://www.healthline.com/health/gonorrhea#complications 2 https://www.thewellproject.org/hiv-information/sexually-transmitted-infections-or-diseases-stis-or-stds 3 https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gonorrhea/symptoms-causes/syc-20351774 4 https://www.cdc.gov/std/gonorrhea/stdfact-gonorrhea.htm 5 https://www.webmd.com/sexual-conditions/gonorrhea 6 https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/155653#symptoms 7 https://www.medicinenet.com/image-collection/syphilis_picture/picture.htm 8 https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/gonorrhoea/ 9 https://www.avert.org/sex-stis/sexually-transmitted-infections/gonorrhoea 10 https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/stds-hiv-safer-sex/gonorrhea

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