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Hepatitis (HBV) : Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

What is Hepatitis?

Hepatitis B is a contamination of your liver. It can cause scarring of the organ, liver disappointment, and malignant growth. It very well may be deadly in the event that it isn't dealt with.

It's spread when individuals interact with the blood, open injuries, or body liquids of somebody who has the hepatitis B infection.

It's not kidding, however on the off chance that you get the malady as a grownup, it shouldn't keep going quite a while. Your body fends it off inside a couple of months, and you're invulnerable for a mindblowing remainder. That implies you can't get it once more. In any case, on the off chance that you get it during childbirth, it' improbable to leave.

Hepatitis is also known as HBV. Acute hepatitis B, Cronic hepatitis B are some common types of Hepatitis. Generally Child are the victim of the Hepatitis. Seriousness of this disease is Serious.

Symptoms of Hepatitis are :

  • Medium Fever
  • A fever is a higher-than-normal body temperature. It?s a sign of your body's natural fight against infection.

    • For adults, a fever is when your temperature is higher than 100.4°F.
    • For kids, a fever is when their temperature is higher than 100.4°F (measured rectally); 99.5°F (measured orally); or 99°F (measured under the arm).

    The average normal body temperature is 98.6° Fahrenheit (or 37° Celsius). When you or your child?s temperature rises a few degrees above normal, it?s a sign that the body is healthy and fighting infection. In most cases, that?s a good thing.

    But when a fever rises above 102°F it should be treated at home and, if necessary, by your healthcare provider if the fever doesn?t go down after a few days.

  • Severe joint and muscle pain
  • Joints are the parts of your body where your bones meet. Joints allow the bones of your skeleton to move. Joints include:

    • shoulders
    • hips
    • elbows
    • knees

    Joint pain refers to discomfort, aches, and soreness in any of the body?s joints. Joint pain is a common complaint. It doesn?t typically require a hospital visit.

    Sometimes, joint pain is the result of an illness or injury. Arthritis is also a common cause of joint pain. However, it can also be due to other conditions or factors.

  • Fatigue/weakness
  • Weakness

    Weakness is when strength is decreased and extra effort is needed to move a certain part of the body or the entire body. Weakness is due to loss of muscle strength. Weakness can be a big part of why cancer patients feel fatigue.

    Fatigue

    Fatigue is an extreme feeling of tiredness or lack of energy, often described as being exhausted. Fatigue is something that lasts even when a person seems to be getting enough sleep. It can have many causes, including working too much, having disturbed sleep, stress and worry, not having enough physical activity, and going through an illness and its treatment.

  • Nausea
  • Nausea and vomiting are common signs and symptoms that can be caused by numerous conditions. Nausea and vomiting most often are due to viral gastroenteritis ? often mistakenly called stomach flu ? or the morning sickness of early pregnancy.

    Many medications can cause nausea and vomiting, as can general anesthesia for surgery. Rarely, nausea and vomiting may indicate a serious or even life-threatening problem.

  • Vomiting
  • Vomiting, or throwing up, is a forceful discharge of stomach contents. It can be a one-time event linked to something that doesn?t settle right in the stomach. Recurrent vomiting may be caused by underlying medical conditions.

    Frequent vomiting may also lead to dehydration, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.

  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue is a constant state of tiredness, even when you?ve gotten your usual amount of sleep. This symptom develops over time and causes a drop in your physical, emotional, and psychological energy levels. You?re also more likely to feel unmotivated to participate in or do activities you normally enjoy.

    Some other signs of fatigue include feeling:

    • physically weaker than usual
    • tired, despite rest
    • as though you have less stamina or endurance than normal
    • mentally tired and moody

    Loss of appetite means you don?t have the same desire to eat as you used to. Signs of decreased appetite include not wanting to eat, unintentional weight loss, and not feeling hungry. The idea of eating food may make you feel nauseous, as if you might vomit after eating. Long-term loss of appetite is also known as anorexia, which can have a medical or psychological cause.

    It may be a warning sign from your body when you feel fatigue and loss of appetite together. Read on to see what conditions may cause these symptoms.

  • abdominal pain
  • Abdominal pain has many potential causes. The most common causes ? such as gas pains, indigestion or a pulled muscle ? usually aren't serious. Other conditions may require more-urgent medical attention.

    While the location and pattern of abdominal pain can provide important clues, its time course is particularly useful when determining its cause.

    Acute abdominal pain develops, and often resolves, over a few hours to a few days. Chronic abdominal pain may be intermittent, or episodic, meaning it may come and go. This type of pain may be present for weeks to months, or even years. Some conditions cause progressive pain, which steadily gets worse over time.

  • Weight loss
  • Sudden, noticeable weight loss can happen after a stressful event, although it can also be a sign of a serious illness.

    It's normal to lose a noticeable amount of weight after the stress of changing jobs, divorce, redundancy or bereavement.

    Weight often returns to normal when you start to feel happier, after you've had time to grieve or get used to the change. Counselling and support may be needed to help you get to this stage.

    Significant weight loss can also be the result of an eating disorder, such as anorexia or bulimia. If you think you have an eating disorder, talk to someone you trust and consider speaking to your GP. There are also several organisations that can provide you with information and advice, such as the eating disorders charity Beat.

    If your weight loss wasn't due to one of the causes mentioned, and you didn't lose weight through dieting or exercising, see your GP, as you may have an illness that needs treating.

  • itchy skin
  • Itchy skin, also known as pruritus, is an irritating and uncontrollable sensation that makes you want to scratch to relieve the feeling. The possible causes for itchiness include internal illnesses and skin conditions.

  • Dark color urine
  • Yellowing of the skin
  • whites of your eyes
  • Pale stool
  • More bowel movements
  • Causes

    Hepatitis can be caused due to:

    HBV

    What kind of precaution should be taken in Hepatitis?

    ####The hepatitis B vaccine offers excellent protection against HBV. The vaccine is safe and highly effective. Vaccination consists of 3 doses of vaccine (shots) over the course of 6 months. Protection lasts for 20 years to life. ####The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all children should receive hepatitis B vaccine starting at birth. (AAP Policy). ####The CDC recommends hepatitis B vaccine for persons traveling to countries where HBV is common (Yellow Book). ####If you have one or more risk factors for hepatitis B infection, you should get a simple HBV blood test. The blood test will determine whether you are: #####immune to hepatitis B; or susceptible to hepatitis B and need vaccination; or #####infected with hepatitis B and need further evaluation by a physician #####The basic test for acute HBV infection is called the ?Hepatitis B Core IgM Antibody test.? People who have acute hepatitis B show positive IgM antibodies on this test.

    ####California law requires testing of all pregnant women for hepatitis B infection ####If the mother is HBV-infected, she will pass the infection to the baby during the birth process, unless the baby gets immunized within hours of birth ####Giving the infant HBIG (hepatitis B immune globulin) and HBV vaccine right away will reliably prevent infection of the infant ####Other family members should best tested for hepatitis B too, and given vaccine if they are not already infected or immune ####Healthy Habits

    The best way to prevent hepatitis B is with vaccination. Other ways to reduce your risk of getting hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV:

    #####Do not inject drugs. If you do inject drugs, stop and get into a treatment program. If you can?t stop, never share needles, syringes, water, or ?works? #####Do not share personal care items that might have blood on them (razors, toothbrushes) #####If you are a health care or public safety worker, follow universal blood/body fluid precautions and safely handle needles and other sharps #####Consider the risks if you are thinking about tattooing, body piercing, or acupuncture ? are the instruments properly sterilized? #####If you?re having sex with more than one steady partner, use latex condoms correctly and every time to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, including viral hepatitis and HIV. ####After Exposure to Hepatitis B

    #####Hepatitis B infection can be prevented by getting vaccine and HBIG (hepatitis B immune globulin) soon after coming into contact with the virus. #####Persons who have recently been exposed to HBV should get HBIG and vaccine as soon as possible and preferably within 24 hours, but not more than 2 weeks after the exposure. #####If you have recently been exposed to hepatitis B, you should immediately contact your doctor

    How it can be spread?

    blood semen other body fluid

    Treatment for the Hepatitis

    ####Treatment for chronic hepatitis B may include:

    #####Antiviral medications. Several antiviral medications ? including entecavir (Baraclude), tenofovir (Viread), lamivudine (Epivir), adefovir (Hepsera) and telbivudine (Tyzeka) ? can help fight the virus and slow its ability to damage your liver. These drugs are taken by mouth. Talk to your doctor about which medication might be right for you. #####Interferon injections. Interferon alfa-2b (Intron A) is a man-made version of a substance produced by the body to fight infection. It's used mainly for young people with hepatitis B who wish to avoid long-term treatment or women who might want to get pregnant within a few years, after completing a finite course of therapy. Interferon should not be used during pregnancy. Side effects may include nausea, vomiting, difficulty breathing and depression. #####Liver transplant. If your liver has been severely damaged, a liver transplant may be an option. During a liver transplant, the surgeon removes your damaged liver and replaces it with a healthy liver. Most transplanted livers come from deceased donors, though a small number come from living donors who donate a portion of their livers. ####Other drugs to treat hepatitis B are being developed.

    Possible complication with Hepatitis

    Cirrhosis or scarring of the liver Liver cancer Liver failure Kidney disease Blood vessel problems

    References:

    1 https://www.healthline.com/health/common-thyroid-disorders 2 https://www.medicinenet.com/thyroid_disorders/article.htm#what_is_the_treatment_for_thyroid_disorders 3 https://www.webmd.com/women/guide/understanding-thyroid-problems-basics#1-2 4 https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/8541-thyroid-disease/outlook--prognosis 5 https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/thyroid-disease 6 https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323196 7 https://medlineplus.gov/thyroiddiseases.html 8 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thyroid_disease

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