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Inflammatory Disorder : Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

What is Inflammatory Disorder?

Inflammation is part of the body?s defense mechanism and plays a role in the healing process.

When the body detects an intruder, it launches a biological response to try to remove it.

The attacker could be a foreign body, such as a thorn, an irritant, or a pathogen. Pathogens include bacteria, viruses, and other organisms, which cause infections.

Sometimes, the body mistakenly perceives its own cells or tissues as harmful. This reaction can lead to autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes.

Experts believe inflammation may contribute to a wide range of chronic diseases. Examples of these are metabolic syndrome, which includes type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and obesity.

People with these conditions often have higher levels of inflammatory markers in their bodies.

Inflammatory disorders include Henoch-Schonlein purpura and the vasculitis that occurs with paraproteins or cryoglobulins or in patients with systemic lupus erythematosis or other immune disorders.

Inflammation is a process by which your body's white blood cells and the things they make protect you from infection from outside invaders, such as bacteria and viruses.

But in some diseases, like arthritis, your body's defense system -- your immune system -- triggers inflammation when there are no invaders to fight off. In these autoimmune diseases, your immune system acts as if regular tissues are infected or somehow unusual, causing damage.

Acute inflammation, Measuring inflammation are some common types of Inflammatory Disorder. Generally Male,Female are the victim of the Inflammatory Disorder. Seriousness of this disease is Medium.

Symptoms of Inflammatory Disorder are :

  • redness of skin
  • Joint swelling
  • Feeling cold
  • Joint Stiffnes
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue is a constant state of tiredness, even when you?ve gotten your usual amount of sleep. This symptom develops over time and causes a drop in your physical, emotional, and psychological energy levels. You?re also more likely to feel unmotivated to participate in or do activities you normally enjoy.

    Some other signs of fatigue include feeling:

    • physically weaker than usual
    • tired, despite rest
    • as though you have less stamina or endurance than normal
    • mentally tired and moody

    Loss of appetite means you don?t have the same desire to eat as you used to. Signs of decreased appetite include not wanting to eat, unintentional weight loss, and not feeling hungry. The idea of eating food may make you feel nauseous, as if you might vomit after eating. Long-term loss of appetite is also known as anorexia, which can have a medical or psychological cause.

    It may be a warning sign from your body when you feel fatigue and loss of appetite together. Read on to see what conditions may cause these symptoms.

  • Fatigue/weakness
  • Weakness

    Weakness is when strength is decreased and extra effort is needed to move a certain part of the body or the entire body. Weakness is due to loss of muscle strength. Weakness can be a big part of why cancer patients feel fatigue.

    Fatigue

    Fatigue is an extreme feeling of tiredness or lack of energy, often described as being exhausted. Fatigue is something that lasts even when a person seems to be getting enough sleep. It can have many causes, including working too much, having disturbed sleep, stress and worry, not having enough physical activity, and going through an illness and its treatment.

  • Severe joint andmuscle pain
  • Joints are the parts of your body where your bones meet. Joints allow the bones of your skeleton to move. Joints include:

    • shoulders
    • hips
    • elbows
    • knees

    Joint pain refers to discomfort, aches, and soreness in any of the body?s joints. Joint pain is a common complaint. It doesn?t typically require a hospital visit.

    Sometimes, joint pain is the result of an illness or injury. Arthritis is also a common cause of joint pain. However, it can also be due to other conditions or factors.

  • Severe Headache
  • Headaches are a common health problem ? most people experience them at some time.

    Factors that lead to headaches may be:

    Frequent or severe headaches can affect a person?s quality of life. Knowing how to recognize the cause of a headache can help a person take appropriate action.

  • Medium Fever
  • A fever is a higher-than-normal body temperature. It?s a sign of your body's natural fight against infection.

    • For adults, a fever is when your temperature is higher than 100.4F.
    • For kids, a fever is when their temperature is higher than 100.4F (measured rectally); 99.5F (measured orally); or 99F (measured under the arm).

    The average normal body temperature is 98.6 Fahrenheit (or 37 Celsius). When you or your child?s temperature rises a few degrees above normal, it?s a sign that the body is healthy and fighting infection. In most cases, that?s a good thing.

    But when a fever rises above 102F it should be treated at home and, if necessary, by your healthcare provider if the fever doesn?t go down after a few days.

    Causes

    Inflammatory Disorder can be caused due to:

    Inflammation happens when a physical factor triggers an immune reaction. Inflammation does not necessarily mean that there is an infection, but an infection can cause inflammation.

    Acute inflammation

    Acute inflammation can result from:

    • exposure to a substance, such as a bee sting or dust
    • an injury
    • an infection

    When the body detects damage or pathogens, the immune system triggers a number of reactions:

    • Tissues accumulate plasma proteins, leading to a buildup of fluid that results in swelling.
    • The body releases neutrophils, a type of white blood cell, or leukocyte, which move toward the affected area. Leukocytes contain molecules that can help fight pathogens.
    • Small blood vessels enlarge to enable leukocytes and plasma proteins to reach the injury site more easily.

    Signs of acute inflammation can appear within hours or days, depending on the cause. In some cases, they can rapidly become severe. How they develop and how long they last will depend on the cause, which part of the body they affect, and individual factors.

    Some factors and infections that can lead to acute inflammation include:

    Chronic inflammation

    Chronic inflammation can develop if a person has:

    Sensitivity: Inflammation happens when the body senses something that should not be there. Hypersensitivity to an external trigger can result in an allergy.

    Exposure: Sometimes, long-term, low-level exposure to an irritant, such as an industrial chemical, can result in chronic inflammation.

    Autoimmune disorders: The immune system mistakenly attacks normal healthy tissue, as in psoriasis.

    Autoinflammatory diseases: A genetic factor affects the way the immune system works, as in Behet?s disease.

    Persistent acute inflammation: In some cases, a person may not fully recover from acute inflammation. Sometimes, this can lead to chronic inflammation.

    Factors that may increase the risk of chronic inflammation include:

    Long-term diseases that doctors associate with inflammation include:

    Inflammation plays a vital role in healing, but chronic inflammation may increase the risk of various diseases, including some cancers, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, periodontitis, and hay fever.

    How it can be spread?

    spread from the vagina and cervix

    Treatment for the Inflammatory Disorder

    Diagnosis:

    No single test can diagnose most autoimmune diseases. Your doctor will use a combination of tests and a review of your symptoms and physical examination to diagnose you.

    The antinuclear antibody test (ANA) is often one of the first tests that doctors use when symptoms suggest an autoimmune disease. A positive test means you may have one of these diseases, but it won?t confirm exactly which one you have or if you have one for sure.

    Other tests look for specific autoantibodies produced in certain autoimmune diseases. Your doctor might also do nonspecific tests to check for the inflammation these diseases produce in the body.

    The patient will have a physical exam and also be asked about medical history. The provider will look for inflammation in the joints, joint stiffness and loss of function in the joint. In addition, the provider may order:

    • X-rays

    • Blood tests

    Treatment:

    Treatment of inflammation will depend on the cause and severity. Often, there is no need for treatment.

    Sometimes, however, not treating inflammation can result in life threatening symptoms.

    During an allergic reaction, for example, inflammation can cause severe swelling that may close the airways, making it impossible to breathe. It is essential to have treatment if this reaction occurs.

    Without treatment, some infections can enter the blood, resulting in sepsis. This is another life threatening condition that needs urgent medical treatment.

    Acute inflammation

    A doctor may prescribe treatment to remove the cause of inflammation, manage symptoms, or both.

    For a bacterial or fungal infection, for example, they may prescribe antibiotics or antifungal treatment.

    Here are some treatments specifically for treating inflammation:

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) will not remove the cause of inflammation, but they can help relieve pain, swelling, fever, and other symptoms. They do this by countering an enzyme that contributes to inflammation.

    Examples of NSAIDs include naproxen, ibuprofen, and aspirin. These are available to purchase online or over the counter. People should check first with a doctor or pharmacist to ensure they make the right choice.

    People should only use NSAIDs long term if a doctor recommends them, as they can have adverse effects. Aspirin is not suitable for children.

    Pain relief: Acetaminophen, including paracetamol or Tylenol, can relieve pain but does not reduce inflammation. These drugs allow the inflammation to continue its role in healing.

    Corticosteroids

    Corticosteroids, such as cortisol, are a type of steroid hormone. They affect various mechanisms involved in inflammation.

    Corticosteroids can help manage a range of conditions, including:

    • arthritis
    • temporal arteritis
    • dermatitis
    • inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
    • systemic lupus
    • hepatitis
    • asthma
    • allergic reactions

    They are available as pills, injections, in an inhaler, or as creams or ointments.

    Long-term use of corticosteroids can be harmful. A doctor can advise on their risks and benefits.

    Treatment for diseases that involve long-term inflammation will depend on the condition.

    Some drugs act to repress the body?s immune reactions. These can help relieve symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and other similar autoimmune reactions. However, they can also leave a person?s body less able to fight an infection if it occurs.

    People who have undergone transplant surgery also need to take immunosuppressant drugs to prevent their bodies from rejecting the new organ. They, too, need to take extra care to avoid exposure to infections.

    References:

    1 https://www.nature.com/subjects/inflammatory-diseases#:~:text=Definition,preperfusion%20injury%20and%20transplant%20rejection. 2 https://mainehealth.org/services/autoimmune-diseases-rheumatology/inflammatory-diseases 3 https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/248423#treatment 4 https://www.webmd.com/arthritis/about-inflammation#2-8 5 https://www.ouh.nhs.uk/oxparc/information/diagnoses/inflammatory-diseases.aspx 6 https://www.healthline.com/health/autoimmune-disorders#diagnosis 7 https://www.healthline.com/health/chronic-inflammation#takeaway

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