What is Malaria?
Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite. The parasite is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. People who have malaria usually feel very sick, with a high fever and shaking chills. Each year, approximately 210 million people are infected with malaria, and about 440, 000 people die from the disease. Most of the people who die from the disease are young children in Africa.
While the disease is uncommon in temperate climates, malaria is still common in tropical and subtropical countries. World health officials are trying to reduce the incidence of malaria by distributing bed nets to help protect people from mosquito bites as they sleep. Scientists around the world are working to develop a vaccine to prevent malaria.Malaria is also known as ague, jungle fever, marsh or swamp fever, paludism.. Malaria belongs under the category of Tropical disease. Plasmodium falciparum (or P. falciparum), Plasmodium malariae (or P. malariae), Plasmodium vivax (or P. vivax), Plasmodium ovale (or P. ovale) and Plasmodium knowlesi (or P. knowlesi) are some common types of Malaria. Generally pregnant women, infants, children under 5 years of age, patients with HIV/AIDS are the victim of the Malaria. Seriousness of this disease is Serious.
Symptoms of Malaria are :
A fever is a high body temperature. A temperature of up to 38.9°C (102°F) can be helpful because it helps the body fight infection. Most healthy children and adults can tolerate a fever as high as 39.4°C (103°F) to 40°C (104°F) for short periods of time without problems. Children tend to have higher fevers than adults.
Anemia is a condition in which you lack enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to your body's tissues. Having anemia can make you feel tired and weak.
There are many forms of anemia, each with its own cause. Anemia can be temporary or long term, and it can range from mild to severe. See your doctor if you suspect that you have anemia. It can be a warning sign of serious illness.
Treatments for anemia range from taking supplements to undergoing medical procedures. You might be able to prevent some types of anemia by eating a healthy, varied diet.
Vomiting, or throwing up, is a forceful discharge of stomach contents. It can be a one-time event linked to something that doesn?t settle right in the stomach. Recurrent vomiting may be caused by underlying medical conditions.
Frequent vomiting may also lead to dehydration, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.
Diarrhea is characterized by loose, watery stools or a frequent need to have a bowel movement. It usually lasts a few days and often disappears without any treatment. Diarrhea can be acute or chronic.
Acute diarrhea occurs when the condition lasts for one to two days. You might experience diarrhea as a result of a viral or bacterial infection. Other times, it could be due to food poisoning.
There?s even a condition known as traveler?s diarrhea, which happens when you have diarrhea after being exposed to bacteria or parasites while on vacation in a developing nation. Acute diarrhea is fairly common.
Seeing blood in the toilet, on the outside of your stool, or with wiping after a bowel movement is common. Fortunately, most of the causes of such rectal bleeding are not life-threatening; common causes include hemorrhoids and anal fissures. However, the only way to be certain of the cause is to be evaluated by a healthcare provider.
- Rectal bleeding is the passage of blood through the anus. The bleeding may result in bright red blood in the stool as well as maroon colored or black stool. The bleeding also may be occult (not visible with the human eye).
- The common causes of rectal bleeding from the colon include anal fissure, hemorrhoids, diverticulosis, colon cancer and polyps, colonic polyp removal, angiodysplasias, colitis, proctitis, and Meckel's diverticula.
- Rectal bleeding also may be seen with bleeding that is coming from higher in the intestinal tract, from the stomach, duodenum, small intestine, or Meckel's diverticulum.
- Rectal bleeding may not be painful; however, other symptoms that may accompany rectal bleeding are diarrhea, and abdominal cramps due to the irritation caused by the blood in the stool.
- Rectal bleeding is commonly evaluated and treated by gastroenterologists and colorectal or general surgeons.
- The origin of rectal bleeding is determined by history and physical examination, anoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, radionuclide scans, visceral angiograms, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy or capsule endoscopy of the small intestine, and blood tests.
- Rectal bleeding is managed first by correcting any low blood volume and anemia if present with blood transfusions and then, determining the site and cause of the bleeding, stopping the bleeding, and preventing future rebleeding.
- Rectal bleeding can be prevented if the cause of the bleeding can be found and definitively treated, for example, by removing the bleeding polyp or tumor. In addition, it may be appropriate to search for additional abnormalities, for example, polyps or angiodysplasias that have not yet bled but may do so in the future. This may require either gastrointestinal endoscopy or surgery.
Nausea and vomiting are common signs and symptoms that can be caused by numerous conditions. Nausea and vomiting most often are due to viral gastroenteritis ? often mistakenly called stomach flu ? or the morning sickness of early pregnancy.
Many medications can cause nausea and vomiting, as can general anesthesia for surgery. Rarely, nausea and vomiting may indicate a serious or even life-threatening problem.
Excessive sweating is when you sweat more than you might expect based on the surrounding temperature or your activity level or stress. Excessive sweating can disrupt daily activities and cause social anxiety or embarrassment.
Excessive sweating, or hyperhidrosis (hi-pur-hi-DROE-sis), can affect your entire body or just certain areas, particularly your palms, soles, underarms or face. The type that typically affects the hands and feet causes at least one episode a week, during waking hours.
A coma is a state of prolonged unconsciousness that can be caused by a variety of problems ? traumatic head injury, stroke, brain tumor, drug or alcohol intoxication, or even an underlying illness, such as diabetes or an infection.
A coma is a medical emergency. Swift action is needed to preserve life and brain function. Doctors normally order a battery of blood tests and a brain CT scan to try to determine what's causing the coma so that proper treatment can begin.
A coma seldom lasts longer than several weeks. People who are unconscious for a longer period of time may transition to a persistent vegetative state.
Depending on the cause of a coma, people who are in a persistent vegetative state for more than one year are extremely unlikely to awaken.
The shaking chills are sometimes referred to as rigors. They are kind of like shivering when you have an infection and fever, but much more intense. Teens usually get shaking chills from very bad infections, some drugs, and sometimes during blood transfusions. If you read the section on Fever, you will learn what causes your body to have a fever. Essentially, when your body senses a foreign substance ? germs, drugs, someone else?s blood ? it responds by increasing your body temperature, so it can fight off the perceived intruder. When your body temperature rises, the surface air feels cold and you begin to shiver. Sometimes the shivers are very intense and become shaking chills or rigors. One common anti-fungal medicine that often causes rigors is amphotericin (or sometimes referred to as ampho-terrible!). If this happens to you, your medical team may be able to switch you to a different type of amphotericin called liposomal amphotericin. You may also have the shaking chills when getting a blood transfusion. Even though the white blood cells (which often cause a reaction) have been filtered out of donated blood, a few remaining cells may cause you to have this reaction. Many teens describe this as one of the most frightening side effects of treatment. If you have this reaction, you will start feeling very cold. Soon, despite all efforts to get warm, you may begin shaking uncontrollably. The first time it happens you may think you are having some kind of seizure. Very scary! After a while, the chills and shaking will subside and you will feel very warm. Off come the blankets and heating pads and out come the cool washcloths! Read more about this in the Fever section.
Joints are the parts of your body where your bones meet. Joints allow the bones of your skeleton to move. Joints include:
Joint pain refers to discomfort, aches, and soreness in any of the body?s joints. Joint pain is a common complaint. It doesn?t typically require a hospital visit.
Sometimes, joint pain is the result of an illness or injury. Arthritis is also a common cause of joint pain. However, it can also be due to other conditions or factors.
Abdominal pain has many potential causes. The most common causes ? such as gas pains, indigestion or a pulled muscle ? usually aren't serious. Other conditions may require more-urgent medical attention.
While the location and pattern of abdominal pain can provide important clues, its time course is particularly useful when determining its cause.
Acute abdominal pain develops, and often resolves, over a few hours to a few days. Chronic abdominal pain may be intermittent, or episodic, meaning it may come and go. This type of pain may be present for weeks to months, or even years. Some conditions cause progressive pain, which steadily gets worse over time.
Headaches are a common health problem ? most people experience them at some time.
Factors that lead to headaches may be:
- emotional, such as stress, depression, or anxiety
- medical, such as migraine or high blood pressure
- physical, such as an injury
- environmental, such as the weather
Frequent or severe headaches can affect a person?s quality of life. Knowing how to recognize the cause of a headache can help a person take appropriate action.
Malaria can be caused due to:
- Anopheles mosquitoes.
What kind of precaution should be taken in Malaria?
- Stay somewhere that has effective air conditioning and screening on doors and windows.
- Use insect repellent on your skin and in sleeping environments.
- Wear light, loose-fitting trousers and wear shirts with long sleeves.
How it can be spread?
- By female anopheles mosquitos.
Treatment for the Malaria
Malaria is treated with prescription drugs to kill the parasite. The types of drugs and the length of treatment will vary, depending on:
- Which type of malaria parasite you have.
- The severity of your symptoms.
- Your age.
- Whether you're pregnant.
Possible complication with Malaria
- Liver failure and jaundice.
- Shock ? a sudden drop in blood pressure.
- Acute respiratory distress syndrome.