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Prostate Disease (prostatic carcinoma) : Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

What is Prostate Disease?

The prostate gland (the prostate) is an organ of the male reproductive system. It is about the size of a walnut and is found at the base of the bladder. The thin tube that allows urine and semen to pass out of the penis (the urethra) runs through the prostate gland. Alkaline fluid produced by the prostate gland helps to nourish sperm and leaves the urethra as ejaculate (semen). The prostate undergoes two main growth spurts. The first is fuelled by the sex hormones made by the testes during puberty. This prompts the prostate to reach an average weight of 20 grams. The second growth spurt begins when men are in their thirties.

Around 25 per cent of men aged 55 years and over have a prostate condition. This increases to 50 per cent by the age of 70 years. Early stages of prostate disease may have no symptoms.

If you are a man and you are in your 50s or 60s, talk to your doctor about whether you need to have your prostate gland checked and, if so, how often. If you have a family history of prostate disease (or if you have particular concerns), talk to your doctor earlier about when prostate checks might be suitable for you.

Prostate Disease is also known as prostatic carcinoma. Prostate Disease belongs under the category of Prostate disease. Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Prostatitis and Prostate cancer are some common types of Prostate Disease. Generally Male are the victim of the Prostate Disease. Seriousness of this disease is Serious.

Symptoms of Prostate Disease are :

  • difficulties in urination
  • Dribbling of urine
  • Frequent pain in hips
  • Painful ejaculation
  • Painful ejaculation, also known as dysorgasmia or orgasmalgia, can range from mild discomfort to severe pain during or after ejaculation. The pain can involve the penis, scrotum, and perineal or perianal area.

  • Pain or burning urination
  • Blood in urine or semen
  • Urinate often
  • Frequent urination
  • feeling that the bladder can?t be fully emptied
  • Causes

    Prostate Disease can be caused due to:

    • Family history. Having a father or brother with prostate cancer more than doubles your risk.
    • Race. African-American men are more likely to get prostate cancer than Caucasians, and the cancer is usually more advanced when discovered.
    • Bacterial infection
    • Aging

    What kind of precaution should be taken in Prostate Disease?

    Choose a healthy diet

    If you want to reduce your risk of prostate cancer, consider trying to:

    • Choose a low-fat diet. Foods that contain fats include meats, nuts, oils and dairy products, such as milk and cheese.

      In some studies, men who ate the highest amount of fat each day had an increased risk of prostate cancer. This doesn't prove that excess fat causes prostate cancer. Other studies haven't found this association. But reducing the amount of fat you eat each day has other proven benefits, such as helping you control your weight and helping your heart.

    • Increase the amount of fruits and vegetables you eat each day. Fruits and vegetables are full of vitamins and nutrients that are thought to reduce the risk of prostate cancer, though research hasn't proved that any particular nutrient is guaranteed to reduce your risk.

    • Reduce the amount of dairy products you eat each day. In studies, men who ate the most dairy products ? such as milk, cheese and yogurt ? each day had the highest risk of prostate cancer. But study results have been mixed, and the risk associated with dairy products is thought to be small.

    Maintain a healthy weight

    Men who are obese ? a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher ? may have an increased risk of prostate cancer. If you are overweight or obese, work on losing weight. You can do this by reducing the number of calories you eat each day and increasing the amount of exercise you do.

    Exercise most days of the week

    Studies of exercise and prostate cancer risk have mostly shown that men who exercise may have a reduced risk of prostate cancer.

    Exercise has many other health benefits and may reduce your risk of heart disease and other cancers. Exercise can help you maintain your weight, or it can help you lose weight.

    If you don't already exercise, make an appointment with your doctor to make sure it's OK for you to get started. When you begin exercising, go slowly. Add physical activity to your day by parking your car farther away from where you're going, and try taking the stairs instead of the elevator.

    Aim for 30 minutes of exercise most days of the week.

    Treatment for the Prostate Disease

    Treatment for prostatitis may include antibacterial drugs and supportive treatments, depending on the type of prostatitis.

    Treatment for BPH may include medications to relax the smooth muscle of the gland or to shrink the size of the prostate, and surgery to produce a permanently widened channel in the part of the urethra that passes through the prostate.

    Treatment for prostate cancer is tailored to suit individual circumstances. The nature of the cancer, other health problems the person may have, and their wishes will all be taken into account.

    Management approaches for prostate cancer include:

    • active surveillance
    • surgery ? for example, prostatectomy (removal of the prostate)
    • radiotherapy
    • ablative treatments such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and NanoKnifeŽ
    • hormone treatment (androgen deprivation therapy)
    • chemotherapy
    • watchful waiting.

    Possible complication with Prostate Disease

    • Urinary incontinence ? Prostate cancer can affect the urethra and the bladder and cause varying degrees of incontinence ranging from occasional leakage through to complete loss of bladder control. Treatment options include medication, surgery or the use of a catheter, depending on symptom severity. Urinary incontinence can severely impact on self-esteem and quality of life.
    • Erectile dysfunction ? Both the growth of prostate cancer and therapies for the condition such as radiotherapy or surgery can cause damage to the nerves nearby to the prostate that are involved in controlling erections. Damage to these delicate nerves can leave the patient unable to obtain or sustain an erection. Medical devices or surgery may be used to treat erectile dysfunction and phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors such as sildenafil or viagra provide another treatment option.
    • Recurrence of the cancer ? Another major complication of prostate cancer is recurrence of the tumor growth after successful treatment and cancer remission. In most cases, treatment with surgery or radiation ensures that the cancer does not return, but sometimes the cancer recurs in areas nearby to the prostate or in other areas of the body.
    • Spread or metastasis of the cancer ? Stage IV or advanced prostate cancer describes a cancer that has spread beyond the prostate gland and seminal vesicles to other organs and tissues such as the lymph nodes, bones, liver, lungs and brain. Bone involvement can give rise to weak and painful bones that are at an increased risk of fracture.
    • Death ? Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among men in the United States and western Europe. However, the majority of men who develop prostate cancer do recover and statistics show that the chances of surviving prostate cancer for 5 years are almost 100% and the chances of surviving for 10 years and 15 years are 91% and 76%, respectively.

    References:

    1 https://med.virginia.edu/urology/for-patients-and-visitors/adult-urology/prostate-disease/ 2 https://medlineplus.gov/prostatediseases.html 3 https://www.webmd.com/prostate-cancer/types-of-prostate-disease 4 https://www.webmd.com/men/guide/prostate-problems#1 5 https://www.medicinenet.com/prostate_problem_warning_signs/article.htm 6 https://www.healthinaging.org/a-z-topic/prostate-diseases/basic-facts 7 https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/prostate-problems

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