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Thyroid Disorder (abnormal thyroid) : Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

What is Thyroid Disorder?

The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of your neck just below the Adam?s apple. It?s part of an intricate network of glands called the endocrine system. The endocrine system is responsible for coordinating many of your body?s activities. The thyroid gland manufactures hormones that regulate your body?s metabolism.

Several different disorders can arise when your thyroid produces too much hormone (hyperthyroidism) or not enough (hypothyroidism).

Four common disorders of the thyroid are Hashimoto?s disease, Graves? disease, goiter, and thyroid nodules.

Thyroid Disorder is also known as abnormal thyroid. Thyroid Disorder belongs under the category of Thyroid disease. Hypothyroidism, Hyperthyroidism, Goiter, Thyroid nodules and Thyroid cancer are some common types of Thyroid Disorder. Generally Adult women(Mostly), Men (rare) are the victim of the Thyroid Disorder. Seriousness of this disease is Medium.

Symptoms of Thyroid Disorder are :

  • menstrual bleeding
  • Less sweating
  • Dry, thinning hair
  • Slow heart rate
  • puffy face
  • low-pitched and hoarse voice
  • dry and scaly skin
  • Weight gain
  • Weight gain can result from an increase in body fluid, muscle mass, or fat. An increase in body fluid can come from medications, fluid and salt retention, intravenous fluid infusion, kidney or heart failure. An increase in muscle mass is commonly seen with exercising. An increase in body fat is commonly seen as a result of diet or lack of exercise as the body converts muscle to fat. An excessive weight gain is referred to as obesity. Obesity is a function of environmental (diet, exercise, lifestyle, etc.), hormonal, and inherited (genetic) factors in varying degrees. Weight gain is a normal part of pregnancy.

  • Muscle weakness
  • constipation
  • Depression
  • Depression is classified as a mood disorder. It may be described as feelings of sadness, loss, or anger that interfere with a person?s everyday activities.

    It?s also fairly common. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source estimates that 8.1 percent of American adults ages 20 and over had depression in any given 2-week period from 2013 to 2016.

    People experience depression in different ways. It may interfere with your daily work, resulting in lost time and lower productivity. It can also influence relationships and some chronic health conditions.

    Conditions that can get worse due to depression include:

    It?s important to realize that feeling down at times is a normal part of life. Sad and upsetting events happen to everyone. But, if you?re feeling down or hopeless on a regular basis, you could be dealing with depression.

    Depression is considered a serious medical condition that can get worse without proper treatment. Those who seek treatment often see improvements in symptoms in just a few weeks.

  • tiredness
  • Weakness

    Weakness is when strength is decreased and extra effort is needed to move a certain part of the body or the entire body. Weakness is due to loss of muscle strength. Weakness can be a big part of why cancer patients feel fatigue.

    Fatigue

    Fatigue is an extreme feeling of tiredness or lack of energy, often described as being exhausted. Fatigue is something that lasts even when a person seems to be getting enough sleep. It can have many causes, including working too much, having disturbed sleep, stress and worry, not having enough physical activity, and going through an illness and its treatment.

  • Severe joint and muscle pain
  • Joints are the parts of your body where your bones meet. Joints allow the bones of your skeleton to move. Joints include:

    • shoulders
    • hips
    • elbows
    • knees

    Joint pain refers to discomfort, aches, and soreness in any of the body?s joints. Joint pain is a common complaint. It doesn?t typically require a hospital visit.

    Sometimes, joint pain is the result of an illness or injury. Arthritis is also a common cause of joint pain. However, it can also be due to other conditions or factors.

  • Feeling cold
  • Causes

    Thyroid Disorder can be caused due to:

    All types of hyperthyroidism are due to an overproduction of thyroid hormones, but the condition can occur in several ways:

    • Graves' disease: The production of too much thyroid hormone.
    • Toxic adenomas: Nodules develop in the thyroid gland and begin to secrete thyroid hormones, upsetting the body's chemical balance; some goiters may contain several of these nodules.
    • Subacute thyroiditis: Inflammation of the thyroid that causes the gland to "leak" excess hormones, resulting in temporary hyperthyroidism that generally lasts a few weeks but may persist for months.
    • Pituitary gland malfunctions or cancerous growths in the thyroid gland: Although rare, hyperthyroidism can also develop from these causes.

    Hypothyroidism , by contrast, stems from an underproduction of thyroid hormones. Since your body's energy production requires certain amounts of thyroid hormones, a drop in hormone production leads to lower energy levels. Causes of hypothyroidism include:

    • Hashimoto's thyroiditis : In this autoimmune disorder, the body attacks thyroid tissue. The tissue eventually dies and stops producing hormones.
    • Removal of the thyroid gland: The thyroid may have been surgically removed or chemically destroyed.
    • Exposure to excessive amounts of iodide: Cold and sinus medicines, the heart medicine amiodarone, or certain contrast dyes given before some X-rays may expose you to too much iodine.You may be at greater risk for developing hypothyroidism if you have had thyroid problems in the past.
    • Lithium: This drug has also been implicated as a cause of hypothyroidism.

    Untreated for long periods of time, hypothyroidism can bring on a myxedema coma, a rare but potentially fatal condition that requires immediate hormone treatment.

    What kind of precaution should be taken in Thyroid Disorder?

    Precautions to keep thyroid levels under control

    Diet

    Keep a tab on your food intake. A balanced and utterly nutritious diet not only helps you to stay healthy but also takes care of all sorts of hormonal secretions. The immune response is triggered when the intestinal lining is inflamed. This can always be reasons for imbalanced thyroid hormones. Taking lots of fresh fruits, vegetables, salmon and extra virgin oil can help you to ensure perfect thyroid levels.

    Avoid processed foods

    Processed and packed foods are not only threatening to your weight but also can be a disaster for various health goals. Transfat, high fructose, refined sugar and MSG cannot be ruled out in the processed and packed foods. Even vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels, watercress and cruciferous vegetables can stimulate autoimmune diseases. Ensure, these foods are always cooked. Raw consumption can interfere with the synthesis of thyroid hormones.

    Supplements

    Defiance of iodine is one of the primary reasons for thyroid issues across the world. Supplements can be taken, and in many countries, it is done with the iodized table salt and dairy foods. However, too much of iodine can lead to hyperthyroidism. If you are all for taking iodine pills, then you should first consult a doctor. Thyroid health can be maintained by taking Vitamin D or selenium. Vitamin D is mandatory if the immune system is less fortified. Again, do not eat any supplements without your doctor?s advice.

    Stay off from environmental toxins

    Exposure to endocrine disruptors for long can again lead to thyroid secretion imbalance. Waterproof clothing, non-stick cookware, carpets, flame resistant are few examples of things that can inhibit the endocrines. This is closely connected to thyroid disease. Antibacterial soaps that have triclosan as an ingredient can disturb hormonal levels.

    Thyroid problems can be treated with ease when found early. Always seek doctor?s advice before you try any medicine for your health problems related to thyroid.

    How it can be spread?

    Does not spread

    Treatment for the Thyroid Disorder

    Your healthcare provider?s goal is to return your thyroid hormone levels to normal. This can be done in a variety of ways and each specific treatment will depend on the cause of your thyroid condition.

    If you have high levels of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism), treatment options can include:

    • Anti-thyroid drugs (methimazole and propylthioracil): These are medications that stop your thyroid from making hormones.
    • Radioactive iodine: This treatment damages the cells of your thyroid, preventing it from making high levels of thyroid hormones.
    • Beta blockers: These medications don?t change the amount of hormones in your body, but they help control your symptoms.
    • Surgery: A more permanent form of treatment, your healthcare provider may surgically remove your thyroid (thyroidectomy). This will stop it from creating hormones. However, you will need to take thyroid replacement hormones for the rest of your life.

    If you have low levels of thyroid hormones (hypothyroidism), the main treatment option is:

    • Thyroid replacement medication: This drug is a synthetic (man-made) way to add thyroid hormones back into your body. One drug that?s commonly used is called levothyroxine. By using a medication, you can control thyroid disease and live a normal life.

    Possible complication with Thyroid Disorder

    If you have a thyroid problem that is not treated properly, serious health problems can result.

    An overactive thyroid (hyperthyroid) can lead to a number of problems including:

    • eye problems, such as bulging eyes, blurred or double vision or even vision loss
    • heart problems, such as rapid heart rate, problems with heart rhythm or heart failure ? these problems can usually be treated
    • brittle bones (osteoporosis)
    • red, swollen skin ? occurring particularly on the shins and feet
    • thyrotoxic crisis, which is a worsening of symptoms causing fever, rapid heart rate and delirium ? this requires urgent medical attention

    An underactive thyroid (hypothyroid) can cause a range of complications, including:

    • an enlarged thyroid, or goitre, which may cause problems with swallowing and breathing
    • high cholesterol and associated heart disease
    • nerve damage causing tingling, numbness and pain in the legs, arms or other affected areas
    • infertility
    • birth defects
    • miscarriage or premature birth
    • mental health issues such as depression
    • myxedema, which is a rare, life-threatening condition involving intense cold intolerance, lethargy and drowsiness that can lead to unconsciousness ? myxedema requires urgent medical attention

    References:

    1 https://www.healthline.com/health/common-thyroid-disorders 2 https://www.medicinenet.com/thyroid_disorders/article.htm#what_is_the_treatment_for_thyroid_disorders 3 https://www.webmd.com/women/guide/understanding-thyroid-problems-basics#1-2 4 https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/8541-thyroid-disease/outlook--prognosis 5 https://www.womenshealth.gov/a-z-topics/thyroid-disease 6 https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323196 7 https://medlineplus.gov/thyroiddiseases.html 8 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thyroid_disease

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