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Typhoid (Slow fever) : Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

What is Typhoid?

Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi, usually through ingestion of contaminated food or water. The acute illness is characterized by prolonged fever, headache, nausea, loss of appetite, and constipation or sometimes diarrhoea. Symptoms are often non-specific and clinically non-distinguishable from other febrile illnesses. However, clinical severity varies and severe cases may lead to serious complications or even death. It occurs predominantly in association with poor sanitation and lack of clean drinking water. According to the most recent estimates, between 11 and 21 million cases and 128 000 to 161 000 typhoid-related deaths occur annually worldwide. A similar but often less severe disease, paratyphoid fever, is caused by Salmonella Paratyphi A and B (or uncommonly Paratyphi C).

Typhoid is also known as Slow fever. Typhoid belongs under the category of Bacterial disease. Salmonella typhi H and O titres are some common types of Typhoid. Generally Male, Female, Child are the victim of the Typhoid. Seriousness of this disease is Serious.

Symptoms of Typhoid are :

  • High Fever
  • A fever is a high body temperature. A temperature of up to 38.9°C (102°F) can be helpful because it helps the body fight infection. Most healthy children and adults can tolerate a fever as high as 39.4°C (103°F) to 40°C (104°F) for short periods of time without problems. Children tend to have higher fevers than adults.

  • constipation
  • shaking chills
  • The shaking chills are sometimes referred to as rigors. They are kind of like shivering when you have an infection and fever, but much more intense. Teens usually get shaking chills from very bad infections, some drugs, and sometimes during blood transfusions. If you read the section on Fever, you will learn what causes your body to have a fever. Essentially, when your body senses a foreign substance ? germs, drugs, someone else?s blood ? it responds by increasing your body temperature, so it can fight off the perceived intruder. When your body temperature rises, the surface air feels cold and you begin to shiver. Sometimes the shivers are very intense and become shaking chills or rigors. One common anti-fungal medicine that often causes rigors is amphotericin (or sometimes referred to as ampho-terrible!). If this happens to you, your medical team may be able to switch you to a different type of amphotericin called liposomal amphotericin. You may also have the shaking chills when getting a blood transfusion. Even though the white blood cells (which often cause a reaction) have been filtered out of donated blood, a few remaining cells may cause you to have this reaction. Many teens describe this as one of the most frightening side effects of treatment. If you have this reaction, you will start feeling very cold. Soon, despite all efforts to get warm, you may begin shaking uncontrollably. The first time it happens you may think you are having some kind of seizure. Very scary! After a while, the chills and shaking will subside and you will feel very warm. Off come the blankets and heating pads and out come the cool washcloths! Read more about this in the Fever section.

  • diarrhea
  • Diarrhea is characterized by loose, watery stools or a frequent need to have a bowel movement. It usually lasts a few days and often disappears without any treatment. Diarrhea can be acute or chronic.

    Acute diarrhea occurs when the condition lasts for one to two days. You might experience diarrhea as a result of a viral or bacterial infection. Other times, it could be due to food poisoning.

    There?s even a condition known as traveler?s diarrhea, which happens when you have diarrhea after being exposed to bacteria or parasites while on vacation in a developing nation. Acute diarrhea is fairly common.

    Chronic diarrhea refers to diarrhea that lasts for at least four weeks. It?s usually the result of an intestinal disease or disorder, such as celiac disease or Crohn?s disease.

  • Bone pain and Back pain
  • sweating
  • Excessive sweating is when you sweat more than you might expect based on the surrounding temperature or your activity level or stress. Excessive sweating can disrupt daily activities and cause social anxiety or embarrassment.

    Excessive sweating, or hyperhidrosis (hi-pur-hi-DROE-sis), can affect your entire body or just certain areas, particularly your palms, soles, underarms or face. The type that typically affects the hands and feet causes at least one episode a week, during waking hours.

  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue is a constant state of tiredness, even when you?ve gotten your usual amount of sleep. This symptom develops over time and causes a drop in your physical, emotional, and psychological energy levels. You?re also more likely to feel unmotivated to participate in or do activities you normally enjoy.

    Some other signs of fatigue include feeling:

    • physically weaker than usual
    • tired, despite rest
    • as though you have less stamina or endurance than normal
    • mentally tired and moody

    Loss of appetite means you don?t have the same desire to eat as you used to. Signs of decreased appetite include not wanting to eat, unintentional weight loss, and not feeling hungry. The idea of eating food may make you feel nauseous, as if you might vomit after eating. Long-term loss of appetite is also known as anorexia, which can have a medical or psychological cause.

    It may be a warning sign from your body when you feel fatigue and loss of appetite together. Read on to see what conditions may cause these symptoms.

  • lethargy
  • Cough
  • When you?re sick or your lungs have become irritated, your body reacts by coughing. This is your body?s defense mechanism to clear out any mucus, allergens, or pollutants so that you don?t keep breathing it in. Coughing is usually nothing to be concerned about. When a cough is a symptom of a cold, it tends to clear up on its own within two or three weeks.

    A lingering cough or a chronic cough not brought on by a recent cold can be an indicator of a more serious condition. Coughs that last longer than eight weeksTrusted Source for adults, or four weeks in children, are considered chronic.

  • Fatigue/weakness
  • Weakness

    Weakness is when strength is decreased and extra effort is needed to move a certain part of the body or the entire body. Weakness is due to loss of muscle strength. Weakness can be a big part of why cancer patients feel fatigue.

    Fatigue

    Fatigue is an extreme feeling of tiredness or lack of energy, often described as being exhausted. Fatigue is something that lasts even when a person seems to be getting enough sleep. It can have many causes, including working too much, having disturbed sleep, stress and worry, not having enough physical activity, and going through an illness and its treatment.

  • Severe joint and muscle pain
  • Joints are the parts of your body where your bones meet. Joints allow the bones of your skeleton to move. Joints include:

    • shoulders
    • hips
    • elbows
    • knees

    Joint pain refers to discomfort, aches, and soreness in any of the body?s joints. Joint pain is a common complaint. It doesn?t typically require a hospital visit.

    Sometimes, joint pain is the result of an illness or injury. Arthritis is also a common cause of joint pain. However, it can also be due to other conditions or factors.

  • abdominal pain
  • Abdominal pain has many potential causes. The most common causes ? such as gas pains, indigestion or a pulled muscle ? usually aren't serious. Other conditions may require more-urgent medical attention.

    While the location and pattern of abdominal pain can provide important clues, its time course is particularly useful when determining its cause.

    Acute abdominal pain develops, and often resolves, over a few hours to a few days. Chronic abdominal pain may be intermittent, or episodic, meaning it may come and go. This type of pain may be present for weeks to months, or even years. Some conditions cause progressive pain, which steadily gets worse over time.

  • Severe Headache
  • Headaches are a common health problem ? most people experience them at some time.

    Factors that lead to headaches may be:

    Frequent or severe headaches can affect a person?s quality of life. Knowing how to recognize the cause of a headache can help a person take appropriate action.

    Causes

    Typhoid can be caused due to:

    • Salmonella typhi Bacteria.

    What kind of precaution should be taken in Typhoid?

    • Don?t drink from the tap or a well.
    • Avoid ice cubes, popsicles, or fountain drinks unless you?re certain they?re made from bottled or boiled water|buy bottled drinks whenever possible (carbonated water is safer than non-carbonated, be sure bottles are tightly sealed)|non-bottled water should be boiled for one minute before drinking.
    • It?s safe to drink pasteurized milk, hot tea, and hot coffee.

    How it can be spread?

    • By food or water

    Treatment for the Typhoid

    A blood test can confirm the presence of S. typhi. Typhoid is treated with antibiotics such as azithromycin, ceftriaxone, and fluoroquinolones.

    It?s important to take all prescribed antibiotics as directed, even if you feel better. A stool culture can determine if you still carry S. typhi.

    Possible complication with Typhoid

    • Internal bleeding in the digestive system.
    • Splitting (perforation) of a section of the digestive system or bowel, which spreads the infection to nearby tissue.

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