As its name suggests, this type of cancer affects the production and function of your blood cells. This type of cancer starts in bone marrow which is the integral source of blood production. Stem cells in your bone marrow mature and develop into three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. In case of cancer, the blood production process is interrupted due to the growth of an abnormal type of blood cell. The various types include Leukemia, Lymphoma and Myeloma.
Ovarian cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the ovaries. The female reproductive system contains two ovaries, one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries ? each about the size of an almond ? produce eggs (ova) as well as the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
Ovarian cancer often goes undetected until it has spread within the pelvis and abdomen. At this late stage, ovarian cancer is more difficult to treat. Early-stage ovarian cancer, in which the disease is confined to the ovary, is more likely to be treated successfully.
Ovarian cancer refers to any cancerous growth that begins in the ovary. This is the part of the female body that produces eggs.
Ovarian cancer is now the fifth most common cause of cancer-related death among females in the United States. That said, deaths from ovarian cancer have been falling in the U.S. over the past 2 decades, according to the American Cancer Society (ACS).
The ACS estimate that in 2019, around 22,530 people may receive a diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Around 13,980 people are likely to die from this condition.
Arthritis is the swelling and tenderness of one or more of your joints. The main symptoms of arthritis are joint pain and stiffness, which typically worsen with age. The most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Osteoarthritis causes cartilage ? the hard, slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones where they form a joint ? to break down. Rheumatoid arthritis is a disease in which the immune system attacks the joints, beginning with the lining of joints.
Uric acid crystals, which form when there's too much uric acid in your blood, can cause gout. Infections or underlying disease, such as psoriasis or lupus, can cause other types of arthritis.
Treatments vary depending on the type of arthritis. The main goals of arthritis treatments are to reduce symptoms and improve quality of life.
Metabolic bone disease or MBD refers to a large spectrum of bone disorders, usually caused by mineral abnormalities such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium or vitamin D. The most common metabolic bone diseases include osteoporosis, osteomalacia, rickets, renal osteodystrophy and osteitis deformans (Paget?s disease of bone).
Metabolic bone disease can be caused by a number of factors including vitamin D deficiency, hereditary hypophosphatemia, and hyperparathyroidism (over-activation of the parathyroid gland).
The most common form of metabolic bone disorder is osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a bone disease characterized by a decrease in bone mass and density resulting in brittle, fragile bones that are more susceptible to fractures. The condition most commonly affects elderly women. Osteoporosis related fractures are more common at the hips, wrists, or vertebral bodies of the spine. Osteoporosis is called a ?silent disease,? because a majority of patients are unaware of their condition until they develop a bone fracture.
Metabolic bone disease in children can result in linear growth reduction, bone deformities, non-traumatic fractures, and impairment of motor development and function.
Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi, usually through ingestion of contaminated food or water. The acute illness is characterized by prolonged fever, headache, nausea, loss of appetite, and constipation or sometimes diarrhoea. Symptoms are often non-specific and clinically non-distinguishable from other febrile illnesses. However, clinical severity varies and severe cases may lead to serious complications or even death. It occurs predominantly in association with poor sanitation and lack of clean drinking water. According to the most recent estimates, between 11 and 21 million cases and 128 000 to 161 000 typhoid-related deaths occur annually worldwide. A similar but often less severe disease, paratyphoid fever, is caused by Salmonella Paratyphi A and B (or uncommonly Paratyphi C).
Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of your bones, such as your hip and thigh bones. It contains stem cells. The stem cells can develop into the red blood cells that carry oxygen through your body, the white blood cells that fight infections, and the platelets that help with blood clotting.
With bone marrow disease, there are problems with the stem cells or how they develop:
In leukemia, a cancer of the blood, the bone marrow makes abnormal white blood cells In aplastic anemia, the bone marrow doesn't make red blood cells In myeloproliferative disorders, the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells Other diseases, such as lymphoma, can spread into the bone marrow and affect the production of blood cells