The liver is an organ about the size of a football. It sits just under your rib cage on the right side of your abdomen. The liver is essential for digesting food and ridding your body of toxic substances.
Liver disease can be inherited (genetic). Liver problems can also be caused by a variety of factors that damage the liver, such as viruses, alcohol use and obesity.
Over time, conditions that damage the liver can lead to scarring (cirrhosis), which can lead to liver failure, a life-threatening condition. But early treatment may give the liver time to heal.
The gallbladder stores and release bile to help digest fats. Gallstones, stone-like objects often made of cholesterol or bilirubin, can develop in the gallbladder or bile ducts. These stones can cause pain and other complications. Treatment options often involve minimally invasive surgery to remove the gallstones, and sometimes the gallbladder.
Gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluid that can form in your gallbladder. Your gallbladder is a small, pear-shaped organ on the right side of your abdomen, just beneath your liver. The gallbladder holds a digestive fluid called bile that's released into your small intestine.
Gallstones range in size from as small as a grain of sand to as large as a golf ball. Some people develop just one gallstone, while others develop many gallstones at the same time.
People who experience symptoms from their gallstones usually require gallbladder removal surgery. Gallstones that don't cause any signs and symptoms typically don't need treatment.
There are two types of gallstones:
Hepatitis B is a contamination of your liver. It can cause scarring of the organ, liver disappointment, and malignant growth. It very well may be deadly in the event that it isn't dealt with.
It's spread when individuals interact with the blood, open injuries, or body liquids of somebody who has the hepatitis B infection.
It's not kidding, however on the off chance that you get the malady as a grownup, it shouldn't keep going quite a while. Your body fends it off inside a couple of months, and you're invulnerable for a mindblowing remainder. That implies you can't get it once more. In any case, on the off chance that you get it during childbirth, it' improbable to leave.
Jaundice is a condition in which the skin, whites of the eyes and mucous membranes turn yellow because of a high level of bilirubin, a yellow-orange bile pigment. Jaundice has many causes, including hepatitis, gallstones and tumors. In adults, jaundice usually doesn't need to be treated. Jaundice is a term used to describe a yellowish tinge to the skin and the whites of the eye. Body fluids may also be yellow.
The color of the skin and whites of the eyes will vary depending on levels of bilirubin. Bilirubin is a waste material found in the blood. Moderate levels lead to a yellow color, while very high levels will appear brown.
About 60 percent of all infants born in the United States have jaundice. However, jaundice can happen to people of all ages and is normally the result of an underlying condition. Jaundice normally indicates a problem with the liver or bile duct. ?Jaundice? is the medical term that describes yellowing of the skin and eyes. Jaundice itself is not a disease, but it is a symptom of several possible underlying illnesses. Jaundice forms when there is too much bilirubin in your system. Bilirubin is a yellow pigment that is created by the breakdown of dead red blood cells in the liver. Normally, the liver gets rid of bilirubin along with old red blood cells.
Red blood cells develop in the bone marrow, which is the sponge-like tissue inside your bones. Your body normally destroys old or faulty red blood cells in the spleen or other parts of your body through a process called hemolysis. Hemolytic anemia occurs when you have a low number of red blood cells due to too much hemolysis in the body.
There are many types of hemolytic anemia, which doctors diagnose based on the underlying cause of your anemia. Certain conditions can cause hemolysis to happen too fast or too often. Conditions that may lead to hemolytic anemia include inherited blood disorders such as sickle cell disease or thalassemia, autoimmune disorders, bone marrow failure, or infections. Some medicines or side effects to blood transfusions may cause hemolytic anemia.
Hemolytic anemia can develop suddenly or slowly, and it can be mild or severe. Signs and symptoms may include fatigue, dizziness, heart palpitations, pale skin, headache, confusion, jaundice, and a spleen or liver that is larger than normal. Severe hemolytic anemia can cause chills, fever, pain in the back and abdomen, or shock. Severe hemolytic anemia that is not treated or controlled can lead to serious complications, such as irregular heart rhythms called arrhythmias; cardiomyopathy, in which the heart grows larger than normal; or heart failure.
To diagnose hemolytic anemia, your doctor will do a physical exam and order blood tests. Additional tests may include a urine test, a bone marrow test, or genetic tests. People who are diagnosed with mild hemolytic anemia may not need treatment at all. For others, hemolytic anemia can often be treated or controlled. Treatments may include lifestyle changes, medicines, blood transfusions, blood and bone marrow transplants, or surgery to remove the spleen. If your hemolytic anemia is caused by medicines or another health condition, your doctor may change your treatment to control or stop the hemolytic anemia.
Kidney stones (also called renal calculi, nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis) are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys.
Diet, excess body weight, some medical conditions, and certain supplements and medications are among the many causes of kidney stones. Kidney stones can affect any part of your urinary tract ? from your kidneys to your bladder. Often, stones form when the urine becomes concentrated, allowing minerals to crystallize and stick together.
Passing kidney stones can be quite painful, but the stones usually cause no permanent damage if they're recognized in a timely fashion. Depending on your situation, you may need nothing more than to take pain medication and drink lots of water to pass a kidney stone. In other instances ? for example, if stones become lodged in the urinary tract, are associated with a urinary infection or cause complications ? surgery may be needed.
Your doctor may recommend preventive treatment to reduce your risk of recurrent kidney stones if you're at increased risk of developing them again.
Not all kidney stones are made up of the same crystals. The different types of kidney stones include:
Calcium stones are the most common. They?re often made of calcium oxalate (though they can consist of calcium phosphate or maleate). Eating fewer oxalate-rich foods can reduce your risk of developing this type of stone. High-oxalate foods include:
However, even though some kidney stones are made of calcium, getting enough calcium in your diet can prevent stones from forming.
This type of stone develops when urine is too acidic. A diet rich in purines can increase urine?s acidic level. Purine is a colorless substance in animal proteins, such as fish, shellfish, and meats.
This type of stone is found mostly in women with urinary tract infections (UTIs). These stones can be large and cause urinary obstruction. They result from a kidney infection. Treating an underlying infection can prevent the development of struvite stones.
Cystine stones are rare. They occur in both men and women who have the genetic disorder cystinuria. With this type of stone, cystine ? an acid that occurs naturally in the body ? leaks from the kidneys into the urine.