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Hemogram

Hemogram

Overview

A Complete blood Count (CBC) is done to study this homeostasis. It is a blood test used to eveluate a wide range of disorders as well as overall health of individual. It is a calculatin of the cellular components of blood.
CBC measures
RBC: RBC or red blood cells carry oxygen and carbon dioxide.Hemoglobin: Hb is the protein in red blood cells that holds oxygen.
MCH: Mean corpuscular hemoglobin is the amount of hemoglobin present in RBCs.
Hematocrit: This indicates the number of RBCs present in the blood.
MCV: Mean corpuscular volume gives the average size of RBCs.
MCHC: Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration is the amount of hemoglobin in a specific amount of blood. This is obtained by multiplying the hemoglobin result by 100 and then dividing it by the hematocrit value.
RDW: Red cell distribution width indicates the size of RBCs.
WBC: White blood cells are reported both, as a percentage and absolute values. They are differentiated into 5 types of cells. These include neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. They are responsible for fighting against infections and inflammation.
Platelets: These cells are responsible for clotting. Some lab tests measure mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet distribution width (PDW).

Preparation(Before)

The CBC test does not need fasting. You can either do this test on an empty stomach or after eating a meal. However, if your doctor has advised some other tests in addition to CBC, you may require to fast. Please check with your doctor or the lab technician.

Preparation(On-time)

The CBC test is a blood test. The lab technician or phlebotomist will insert a sterile needle into your vein, usually at the bend of the elbow and draw out blood. It?s a quick and painless procedure, though some people might experience discomfort or develop bruising. The bruise subsides within a few days.

Testing time

This is a simple procedure and doesn?t take more than a few minutes. It basically involves drawing a small sample of blood from the vein.

Report delivery time

Most labs make the CBC test reports available in 24 hours.

Normal range

The Haemogram test includes a wide number of tests and the normal values of all the test are as follows;

The normal values for Hb test is 14?17.5 g/dL (males), 12.3?15.3 g/dL (females) The normal values for RBC count is 4.5?5.9 x 106 (males), 4.5?5.1 x 106 (females) The normal values for TLC for both the genders and across all age groups is 4.5-11.0 x 109 /L Neutrophils is 56% Eosinophils is 2.7% Lymphocytes is 34% Monocytes is 4% ESR is 0?20 mm/hr MCV is 80?96 m MCH is 27.5?33.2 pg MCHC is 32%?36% PCV 36%?47% Platelet count is 150?450 x 103 /l RDW-SD is 39?46 fL RDW-CV is 11.6%?15% PDW is 8.3?25.0 fL MPV is 8.6?15.5 fL P-LCR is 11.9%?66.9% PCT is 0.15%?.62% Absolute neutrophils count is 1800?7800 /l Absolute lymphocytes count is 1000?4800 /l Absolute monocytes count is 0?800 /l Absolute basophils count is 0?200 /l Absolute eosinophils count is 0?450 /l

Result explanation

CBC test results allow the doctor to interpret the health of your blood cells. The possible conditions that an abnormal CBC report can point towards are explained in detail below.
Red blood cells, Hb and hematocrit
If your RBC is lower than the reference range, it is indicative of anemia. Anemia is generally caused by low iron levels, deficiency of certain vitamins, blood loss, congenital heart disease or an underlying condition.
A high count RBC is called erythrocytosis. This occurs in myeloproliferative disorders such as polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis. These are slow-growing blood cancers where the bone marrow produces a large number of abnormal blood cells (RBC, WBC, and platelets).
A high hematocrit could indicate that you are dehydrated or have another underlying medical condition.
A high MCV means your RBCs are bigger than the normal size. This could be due to vitamin B12 or folate deficiency.

White blood cells
A low WBC count (leukopenia) can indicate bone marrow problems, autoimmune disorders or certain cancers. Some medications can also lower your WBC count.
A high WBC count (leukemia) indicates the presence of infection or inflammation in the body. Certain immune disorders, autoimmune disorders, and medications can also lead to a high WBC count.
Neutrophils, the most common white blood cells in adults, are responsible for fighting against bacterial and some viral infections. Higher levels of neutrophils can indicate acute infection or myeloproliferative disorders.
A low neutrophil count (neutropenia) can cause immunosuppression.
Lymphocytes go up in certain lymphocytic leukemias such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and some viral infections such as glandular fever.
A low lymphocyte count occurs in HIV infections.
A high monocyte count is indicative of certain bacterial infections.
Eosinophils go up if you have an allergic reaction, asthma or parasitic infection.
High basophils can indicate bone marrow disorders.
Platelets
Low platelet counts (thrombocytopenia) or high platelet counts (thrombocytosis) can be caused by certain medical conditions or medications.

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