Widal Test (SERUM):Widal Test (SERUM)
"Widal test is done to diagnose the enteric fever (Typhoid fever). Enteric fever is a life-threatening illness caused by infection with the bacterium Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. typhi), usually transmitted through food and drinks contaminated with fecal matter. It is associated with symptoms that include high fever, fatigue, headache, abdominal pain, diarrhea or constipation, weight loss, and a rash known as ""rose spots."" Early diagnosis and treatment are important because serious complications, including severe intestinal bleeding or perforation, can develop within a few weeks.Widal test is developed in 1896 and named after Georges Ferdinand Widal, who introduced it, the method relies on a reaction in a test tube or on a slide between antibodies present in the infected person's blood sample and specific antigens of S. typhi, which produces clumping (agglutination) that is visible to the naked eye. While the method is easy to perform, concerns remain about the reliability of the Widal test and studies of the assay's sensitivity and other measures of reliability have been disappointing. Besides cross-reactivity with other Salmonella species, the test cannot distinguish between a current infection and a previous infection or vaccination against typhoid.
** Why to test Widal Test (SERUM)?**
The Widal test is a blood test, widely used for serological diagnosis of enteric fever (typhoid / paratyphoid fever). It measures the titre (level) of antibodies (in blood of patients) against salmonella antigens:
- TO � Somatic (O) antigen of Salmonella typhi
- TH � Flagellar (H) antigen of Salmonella typhi
- AH � Flagellar (H) antigen of Salmonella Paratyphi
- A BH Flagellar (H) antigen of Salmonella Paratyphi B
The antibodies against O antigen of only Salmonella typhi are measured, since all Salmonella have similar O antigens. An increasing O antibody level signifies acute infection, whilst a raised H antibody level may indicate the serotype of the infecting organism, or an earlier infection. However, as for any other serological test, it has many limitations as a diagnostic tool, since it provides indirect evidence (as a surrogate marker) for infection. Also, the rise in antibody levels, needed to make the diagnosis, takes 7-14 days, which limits its use. The interpretation of the serology thus requires consideration of factors such as previous immunisation, the stage of the illness and the effect of any antibiotic treatment, infection with any other gram-negative bacteria, etc. As a diagnostic marker, Widal test must be done on paired serum samples. The first sample is taken early in the disease and the second sample at least 2 weeks later. A four-fold rise in antibodies in the paired samples is significant and diagnoses acute recent infections. Widal test can also be used in carrying out serological surveys in a community to know the prevalence (and endemicity in an area) of enteric fever and determine the cut off titre for interpretation in that population. The traditional Widal test is done in tubes (tube agglutination test) and needs 15-18 hours for the test to be done. A modified Widal test is commercially available as a slide agglutination test. However, the isolation of Salmonella bacteria in the blood (by blood culture) is the gold standard for diagnosing enteric fever.
** When to test Widal Test (SERUM)?**
Following are the clinical indications for performing the Widal Blood Test:
- Fever, chills
- Abdominal pain
- Weight loss
- Rash spots 2-4 mm in diameter, called �rose spots�"
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