Tissue Transglutaminase Antibody Deaminated Gliadin Peptide Antibodies Anti-Endomysial Antibodies Anti-Reticulin Antibodies Quantitative Immunoglobulin A
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by an inappropriate immune response to gluten, a protein found in wheat, and related dietary proteins in rye and barley. Celiac disease antibody tests help diagnose and monitor the disease and a few other gluten-sensitive conditions. These tests detect autoantibodies in the blood that the body produces as part of the immune response.
This immune response leads to inflammation of the small intestine and to damage and destruction of the villi that line the intestinal wall. The villi are projections, small tissue folds that increase the surface area of the intestine and allow nutrients, vitamins, minerals, fluids, and electrolytes to be absorbed into the body. When a susceptible person is exposed to gluten, the person?s body produces autoantibodies that act against constituents of the intestinal villi. When villi are damaged or destroyed, the body is much less capable of absorbing food and begins to develop signs and symptoms associated with malnutrition and malabsorption.
A tissue biopsy of the small intestine is still considered the gold standard to use to confirm a diagnosis of celiac disease, but the availability of less invasive blood tests to screen for celiac disease has reduced the number of biopsies needed
Follow your healthcare practitioner's instructions. For diagnosis, you should continue to eat foods that contain gluten for a time period, such as several weeks, prior to testing. For monitoring celiac disease when you have already been diagnosed, no preparation is necessary.
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Celiac disease antibody tests are primarily used to help diagnose and monitor celiac disease in people with signs and symptoms, including anemia and abdominal pain.
Sometimes celiac testing may be used to screen for asymptomatic celiac disease in those who have close relatives with the disease since about 4-12% of them have or will develop celiac disease. Testing may also be ordered in those who have other autoimmune diseases.
Celiac disease blood tests measure the amount of particular antibodies in the blood. The most common tests include:
Tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG), IgA class ? the primary test ordered to screen for celiac disease. It is the most sensitive and specific blood test for celiac disease and is the single test preferred by the American College of Gastroenterology and the American Gastroenterology Association for the detection of celiac disease in those over the age of 2 years. If the test is positive, it can also be used to monitor the condition and to help evaluate the effectiveness of treatment. (Although ?tissue? is in the name of this test, it is measured in the blood.) Immunoglobulin A (IgA) ? this test is usually ordered along with the tTG IgA test (below) to detect IgA deficiency, which occurs in about 2-3% of people with celiac disease. If you have an IgA deficiency then the test for tTG IgA may be negative even if you have celiac disease (false-negative test results). If the IgA test shows you have an IgA deficiency, then a test to detect the IgG class of autoantibodies may be ordered (see below). tTG, IgG may be used as an alternative test in people who have a deficiency of IgA. Deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP) antibodies (anti-DGP), IgA or IgG ? may be used in some people with suspected celiac disease who are negative for anti-tTG, especially children younger than 2 years old. DGP IgG testing along with anti-tTG IgG is recommended by the American College of Gastroenterology for people who have low IgA or IgA deficiency. If the anti-DGP test is positive, it may be used to monitor celiac disease
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