Brain Hemorrhage:causes,symptoms,complication, cost and treatment
Overview of Brain hemorrhage:
A brain hemorrhage refers to bleeding in the brain. This medical condition is also known as a brain bleed or an intracranial hemorrhage. It is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.
The skull surrounds the brain, and any leaking blood from a hemorrhage can cause compression and damage to the brain tissues.
If a blood vessel in the brain leaks or bursts and causes bleeding, a hemorrhagic stroke occurs.
Compression from excessive bleeding may be so severe that oxygen rich blood is unable to flow to the brain tissue. A lack of oxygen in the brain can lead to swelling, or cerebral edema.
Pooled blood from a bleed can also collect into a mass known as a hematoma. The extra pressure of this can prevent oxygen from reaching brain cells, which can result in their death.
Several factors can lead to a brain hemorrhage. These factors include:
- head trauma or injury
- cerebral aneurysm, or a weakened bulge in a brain artery
- extremely high blood pressure
- blood vessel anomalies
- blood or bleeding disorders
- liver disease
- brain tumor
- consumption of illicit drugs
A brain hemorrhage can cause a range of different symptoms. These symptoms may include sudden tingling, weakness, numbness, or paralysis of the face, arm, or leg. This is most likely to occur on one side of the body only.
Other symptoms include:
- sudden, severe headache
- difficulty swallowing
- problems with vision
- loss of balance or coordination
- confusion or difficulty understanding
- difficulty talking or slurred speech
- stupor, lethargy, or unconsciousness
Complications often arise from a brain hemorrhage. The bleeding prevents the nerve cells from communicating with other parts of the body and resuming normal function.
Common problems after a brain hemorrhage include movement, speech, or memory issues.
Depending on the location of a hemorrhage and the damage that occurs, some complications may be permanent. These might include:
- numbness or weakness in part of the body
- difficulty swallowing, or dysphagia?")
- vision loss
- reduced ability to speak or understand words
- confusion or memory loss
- personality change or emotional problems
There are several types of brain hemorrhages. The type depends on the location of the bleeding:
- Intracerebral hemorrhage: This type of bleeding occurs inside the brain.
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage: This bleeding occurs between the brain and the membranes that cover it.
- Subdural hemorrhage: This type happens below the inner layer of the dura and above the brain.
- Epidural hemorrhage: This is when a bleed develops between the skull and the brain.
All types of brain hemorrhage can pose a serious risk to health.
Diagnosing a brain hemorrhage can be difficult as some people do not show any physical signs. Doctors need to do tests to find the exact location of the bleeding in the brain.
Testing options include:
- Brain CT Scan or MRI scan for Brain.
- Lumbar puncture, or spinal tap, where a doctor removes spinal fluid through a hollow needle for testing.
- Cerebral angiography where a doctor injects a dye and then takes X-ray images of the brain, with the dye highlighting abnormally shaped blood vessels in or near the brain.
Surgery may be necessary to treat a severe brain hemorrhage. Surgeons may operate to relieve some of the pressure on the brain.
If a burst cerebral aneurysm causes a hemorrhage, a surgeon may remove part of the skull and clip the artery. This procedure is called a craniotomy.
Rehabilitation treatment includes:
- physical therapy
- speech therapy
- occupational therapy
- lifestyle changes to limit the risk of another hemorrhage