Celiac Disease:causes,symptoms,complication, cost and treatment
Overview of Celiac Disease:
Celiac disease is a chronic digestive disorder resulting from an immune reaction to gliadin, a gluten protein found in wheat, barley, rye, and sometimes oats.
It involves inflammation and destruction of the inner lining of the small intestine and can lead to the malabsorption of minerals and nutrients.
Symptoms may include chronic diarrhea, weight loss, and fatigue. In some cases, the only symptom is anemia, and celiac disease is not be diagnosed until later in life.
Celiac disease affects about 1 in 141 Americans. It can affect a person of any age who is genetically predisposed, but it often begins in middle infancy.
There is no cure, and the only effective treatment is a gluten-free diet.
Celiac disease is a permanent disorder. Symptoms can range from mild to severe, they can change over time, and they can vary between individuals. Some people may have no symptoms, or symptoms may not appear until later in life.
Some common symptoms of celiac disease include:
- gastrointestinal symptoms, such as abdominal cramps, diarrhea, gas, nausea and vomiting, and bloating
- foul-smelling stools with excess fat in them
- bone and joint pain
- depression, irritability, and panic attacks
- weakness and fatigue
- easy bruising and nose bleeds
- fluid retention
- persistent hunger
- iron deficiency anemia
- malnutrition and nutrition deficiencies, including a lack of vitamin B12, D, and K
- mouth sores and tooth discoloration
- muscle wasting, muscle weakness, and muscle cramps
- nerve damage, leading to tingling in the legs and feet
- blood in the stools or in the urine
- migraine headaches.
Celiac disease is an immune disorder. When a person with celiac disease eats gluten, their cells and immune systems are activated and attack and damage the small intestine.
In celiac disease, the immune system mistakenly attacks the villi in the small intestine. These become inflamed and impacted, and they may disappear. The small intestine is no longer able to absorb nutrients effectively. This can lead to a number of health risks and complications.
People who are more likely to have celiac disease include those with:
- another autoimmune disease, such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, or an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid or the liver
- a genetic disorder, such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome
- a family member who has the disease
The doctor will examine the patient and ask about signs and symptoms, and they may request some tests.
Blood tests may detect:
- Antigliadin antibodies
- Endomysial antibodies
- Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies
- Serology testing
Blood is screened for antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptide (TTG) and sometimes antigliadin (AGA) and andomysium antibodies (EmA).
A small intestinal biopsy is considered the most accurate test for celiac disease. The doctor uses endoscopy to take samples of the intestinal lining. Usually, several samples are obtained to increase the accuracy of the diagnosis.
Conditions that have similar symptoms to celiac disease include:
- pancreatic insufficiency
- Crohn?s disease of the small intestine
- irritable bowel syndrome?")
- small intestinal overgrowth of bacteria
- gluten sensitivity, which has similar, but milder symptoms and is being debated as an entity
The doctor should eliminate these possibilities when making a diagnosis.
Hair loss, anemia, and osteoporosis can occur because the body does not absorb nutrients effectively. Small bowel ulcers may develop.
Celiac disease has been linked to certain types of cancer, including intestinal lymphoma and adenocarcinoma of the small intestine, of the pharynx, and of the esophagus.
Scientists are investigating medications that work directly in the intestines, treatments that affect the immune system, and vaccinations to treat celiac disease.
However, there is currently no treatment, except for avoiding gluten.
If the individual continues to consume gluten, this can affect their quality of life, and it may increase the risk of some medical conditions.